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: 美籍華人 or 華裔美國人) are Americans
descent. Chinese Americans constitute one group of Overseas Chinese
and are a subgroup of Asian American
The Chinese American community is the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising of 22.4% of the Asian American population. They constitute roughly 1% of the United States
as a whole. In 2004, Chinese American population numbered to nearly 3.4 millionhttp://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2004_EST_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2004_EST_G00_S0201T&-reg=ACS_2004_EST_G00_S0201:035;ACS_2004_EST_G00_S0201T:035&-ds_name=ACS_2004_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-format=
railroad workers in the snow — 19th century]Main article: Chinese immigration to the United States
Chinese immigration to the United States
has come in many waves. Like all the American immigration experiences
, the Chinese immigration has seen both hardship and success.
Legally all ethnic Chinese born in the United States are American citizens as a result of the Fourteenth Amendment
and the 1898 United States v. Wong Kim Ark
Supreme Court decision. Upon naturalization, immigrants are required to renounce their former citizenship. The People's Republic of China
does not recognize dual citizenship and considers this a renunciation of PRC citizenship. The Republic of China
(Taiwan) is officially ambiguous about dual citizenship, but it does not recognize the American naturalization oath, by itself, as renouncing citizenship.
Life in Americathumb|Professor Nobel Prize
. The others are Tsung-dao Lee
, Samuel C. C. Ting
, Daniel Chee Tsui
, and Chen Ning Yang
.">[Steven Chu is among the several Chinese Americans to have won the Nobel Prize
. The others are Tsung-dao Lee
, Samuel C. C. Ting
, Daniel Chee Tsui
, and Chen Ning Yang
.]thumb|Secretary of Labor [Elaine Chao
is the first (and to date, only) Chinese American to serve in the federal cabinet. She is also the first Asian American woman and second Asian American in the Cabinet.]
Chinese Americans have made many large strides in American society. Today, Chinese Americans engage in every facet of American life including the military, elected offices, media, academia, and sports. Many Chinese Americans (along with other Asian Americans) have blended the American lifestyle over the years in with a more natively Asian one, further enhancing the accuracy of term, melting pot
Perhaps the most common landmark of the Chinese impact in America are the prolific Chinese restaurants that have cropped up in every corner of the U.S. Along with these culinary traditions, Chinese heritage is celebrated not only by most Chinese Americans, but also mainstream America; the most prominent of these is the Chinese New Year
Chinese American income and social status varies widely. Although many Chinese Americans in Chinatowns
of large cities are often members of an impoverished working class, others are well-educated upper-class people living in affluent suburbs. The upper and lower-class Chinese are also widely separated by social status. In California's San Gabriel Valley
, for example, even though the cities of Monterey Park
and San Marino
are both Chinese American communities lying geographically close to each other, they are separated by a large socio-economic and income gap.
Although Chinese Americans grow up learning English, some of them tend to make their children learn Chinese too, due to a feeling of pride in their cultural ancestry. However, some Chinese Americans make assimilation a priority and prefer not to make their children learn Chinese, instead letting them completely immerse in an English-speaking environment, while others make it the top priority for their children to speak both the native tongue and English together.
*Building Western half of the Transcontinental railroad
*Building levees in the Sacramento River Delta
*Developing and cultivating much of the Western US
*Science and technology
Influence on American culture
*American Chinese cuisine
*Chinese character tattoos
Demographicsleft|thumb|160px|San Francisco North America
.">[Chinatown, one of the largest in North America
Cities with large Chinese American populations include New York
, San Francisco
, Los Angeles
, and Philadelphia
. In these cities, there are often multiple Chinatowns, an older one and a newer one which is populated by immigrants from the 1960s and 1970s. In some areas, Chinese Americans maintain close relationships with other Asian groups, particularly Vietnamese American
s. These relationships are helped by the fact that many Vietnamese American
s are ethnic overseas Chinese
, although most ethnic Chinese Vietnamese Americans do not classify themselves as Vietnamese American.
In addition to the big cities, smaller pockets of Chinese Americans are also dispersed in rural towns, often university towns, throughout the United States. Chinese Americans formed nearly three percent of California's population in 2000, and over one percent in the Northeast. Hawaii
, with its historically heavily-Asian population, was nearly ten percent Chinese American.
As a whole, Chinese American populations continue to grow at a rapid rate due to immigration. However, they also on average have birth rates lower than those of Caucasian Americans, and as such their population is aging relatively quickly. In recent years, adoption
of young children, especially girls, from China has also brought a boost to the numbers of Chinese Americans, although most of the adoptions appear to have been done by white parents.
see|Demographics of the United
Different Chinese American identities
The Chinese American identities in the United States are quite varied. There are two main aspects to that identity: ethnicity and culture
. A person can claim the Chinese American identity through either his/her ethnic affiliation
or cultural affiliation
, or both. For example, some Chinese Americans identify themselves as ethnic Chinese, but not cultural Chinese, and some Chinese Americans identify themselves as cultural Chinese but not ethnic Chinese.
*First generation Chinese Americans (recent immigrants, either residents or naturalized citizens).
*Second generation and later generation Chinese Americans, also known as American-born Chinese
*Chinese students studying in American universities.
*Chinese children adopted into non-Chinese American families.
Many Chinese Americans, mostly those who are immigrants, identify mainly as Chinese or Overseas Chinese
without much identification as being American, even though in many cases they may have American citizenship or have resided in the U.S. for long periods of time. These Chinese Americans still consider their place of origin to be their homeland, and feel that they are sojourners who are displaced from home, as opposed to considering the U.S. as their home and are ethnic minorities living in their homeland.
People who consider themselves as Chinese Americans through their identification with the Chinese culture, but they may or may not identify themselves as ethnic Chinese, or who may consider themselves American but identify strongly with Chinese culture.
Many Chinese Americans claim bicultural identity - affiliating with both Chinese culture and mainstream American culture.
Some decide that neither Chinese ethnic, nor cultural affiliation is appropriate and self-identify as just American.
Politicsthumb|160px|Former Washington State Governor [Gary Locke
Chinese Americans are divided among many subgroups based on factors such as a generation, place of origin, socio-economic level, and do not have uniform attitudes about the People's Republic of China
, the Republic of China
, the United States
, or Chinese nationalism
, with attitudes varying widely between active support, hostility, or indifference. Different subgroups of Chinese Americans also have radically different and sometimes very conflicting political priorities and goals. It is for this reason that Chinese Americans do not have any unified political groups or any unified political viewpoints.
In recent decades, many Chinese Americans have started pursuing careers in politics, and succeeded in getting elected into political offices. The most prominent is Gary Locke
who became the first Chinese American governor in U.S. history. Others include Hiram Fong
, Daniel Akaka
, March Fong Eu
, Matt Fong
, Thomas Tang
, Norman Bay
, Elaine Chao
, and David Wu
During the Cultural Revolution
, Chinese Americans, like all overseas Chinese
, generally speaking, were viewed as capitalist
traitors by the People's Republic of China government
. This attitude changed completely in the late 1970s with the reforms of Deng Xiaoping
. Increasingly, Chinese Americans were seen as sources of business and technical expertise and capital
who could aid in China's economic
and other development
see|Racism in the United States |Anti-Chinese
*List of Chinese Americans
*List of U.S. cities with large Chinese American populations
*Chinese Exclusion Act
*Chinese American organizations
*Chinese New Zealander
* http://www.moca-nyc.org Museum of Chinese in the Americas
* http://www.ocanatl.org Organization of Chinese Americans
* http://www.chsa.org/ Chinese Historical Society of America
* http://www.asiansinamerica.org/directory/dir_e_ch.html The Asians in America Project - Chinese American Organizations Directory
* http://www.paperson.com/history.htm "Paper Son" - one Chinese American's story of coming to America under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
* http://www.pbs.org/becomingamerican/ Becoming American: The Chinese Experience
a PBS Bill Moyers special. Thomas F. Lennon, Series Producer.
* http://cprr.org/Museum/Chinese.html Chinese American Contribution to Transcontinental Railroad
- Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum
* http://www.EITC.org Emerging Information Technology Conference (EITC), organized by several Chinese American organizations
* http://www.yellowbridge.com/people/whoswho.html Famous Chinese Americans
Comprehensive list of famous Chinese Americans organized by professions. Includes short biographical notes and Chinese names.
* http://www.cina.org/ Chinese Information and Networking Association (CINA)
* http://www.nwchp.org/ Northwest Chinese Professionals Association
* http://web.pdx.edu/~lorz/index.htm The Yung Wing Project
hosts the memoir of the first Chinese American graduate of an American university (Yale 1854).
* Chinese Americans and Their Immigrant Parents: Conflict, Identity, and Values
, May Pao-May Tung
, Haworth Press, 2000, paperback, 112 pages, ISBN 0-7890-1056-9
* Chinese Americans: The Immigrant Experience
, Dusanka Miscevic
and Peter Kwong, Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 2000, hardcover, 240 pages, ISBN 0-88363-128-8
* Compelled To Excel: Immigration, Education, And Opportunity Among Chinese Americans
, Vivian S. Louie
, Stanford University Press, 2004, paperback, 272 pages, ISBN 0-8047-4985-X
* The Chinese in America: A Narrative History
, Iris Chang
, Viking, 2003, hardcover, 496 pages, ISBN 0-670-03123-2
* Being Chinese, Becoming Chinese American
, Shehong Chen, University of Illinois Press, 2002 ISBN 0-252-02736-1 http://www.press.uillinois.edu/epub/books/chen/toc.html electronic book
* On Gold Mountain: The One-Hundred-Year Odyssey of My Chinese American Family
, Lisa See, 1996. ISBN 0-679-76852-1. See also the website for an exhibition based on this book http://www.apa.si.edu/ongoldmountain
from the Smithsonian
Asian Pacific American Program.
----Category:Chinese American history Category:Ethnic groups in the United StatesAmericansde:Sino-Amerikanerzh:美籍华人