, The White Crucifixion
, Crucifixion (Masaccio)
, The Rosy Crucifixion
, Creation Is Crucifixion
, Crucifixion of Jesus
, Black Crucifixion
, Passion (Christianity)
, Crucifixion (Antonello da Messina)
is an ancient method of execution
, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross
(possible as a variation a pole
) and left to hang there until dead. It was widely considered a not uncommon but extremely dishonorable and painful form of judicial execution in the Roman Empire
, though similar methods were employed in other ancient cultures such as Persia
["The first recorded instances of crucifixion are found in Persia, where it was believed that since the earth was sacred, the burial of the body of a notorious criminal would desecrate the ground. The birds above and the dogs below would dispose of the remains."]
Smith, Damian Barry, The Trauma of the Cross: How the Followers of Jesus Came to Understand the Crucifixion, p. 14. Paulist Press: Mahwah, New Jersey, 1999.
Crucifixion was used by the Romans until about AD 313
, when Christianity was legalized in the Roman Empire and soon became the official state religion. However, it has been used in various places in modern times.
Since Jesus Christ
was the most notable person to be crucified, a crucifix
, often bearing an icon of Christ, became the main symbol of most Christians
, while some religious groups, such as Protestants, prefer to use only a cross without crucified body to emphasize their belief that Christ continues to live; an alternative, sometimes clandestine symbol since Roman persecution, was the Ichthys
Details of crucifixion
unreferenced|date=July thumb|right|175px|The Yellow Christ (Le Christ jaune)
1889, oil on canvas. By Paul Gaugin
. Albright-Knox Art Gallery
, Buffalo, NY, USA]
Crucifixion was rarely performed for ritual or symbolic reasons, but usually to provide a particularly painful (hence the term excruciating
, literally "out of crucifying"), gruesome (hence dissuading against the crimes punishable by it) and public (hence the metonymic
expression 'to nail to the cross') death, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period.
Two methods were followed in the infliction of the punishment of crucifixion. In both of these the criminal was first stripped naked
, and bound to an upright stake, where he was scourged
. After this, the victim was dressed again, and, if able, was made to drag the cross or a part of it (usually weighing 150 lb or more) to the place of execution. At this point he was again stripped naked, and was either fastened to it or impaled upon it, and left to die. In this method, the crux simplex
of Justus Lipsius
, a single stake was used.
The other method is described in the New Testament
account of the crucifixion of Jesus. In such a case, after the scourging at the stake, the criminal was made to carry a gibbet
, formed of two transverse bars of wood, to the place of execution, and he was then fastened to it either by rope or by large iron nails driven through the heels of the hands or through the wrists and through the ankles. Sometimes this was done as the cross lay on the ground, and it was then lifted into position. In other cases the criminal was made to ascend by a ladder, and was then fastened to the cross. Probably the feebleness, or state of collapse, from which the criminal must often have suffered, had much to do in deciding this.
It is not quite clear which of these two plans was followed in the case of the crucifixion of Christ, but the more general opinion has been that he was nailed to the cross on the ground, and that it was then lifted into position. The contrary opinion, has, however, prevailed to some extent, and there are representations of the crucifixion which depict him as mounting a ladder placed against the cross. Such representations may, however, have been due to a pious desire of their authors to emphasize the voluntary offering of himself as the Saviour of the World, rather than as being intended for actual pictures of the scene itself. It may be noted, however, that among the Emblems of the Passion
, as they are called, and which were very favorite devices in the middle ages, the ladder is not infrequently found in conjunction with the crown of thorns, nails, spear and other related items.
The horizontal beam of the cross, or transom, could be fixed at the very top of the vertical piece, the upright, to form a capital T called a tau
cross or Saint Anthony
's cross. According to some unlikely theories, this shape had its origin in ancient Babylonia as the symbol of the god Tammuz
, being in the shape of the mystic Tau
, the Greek initial of his name. The horizontal beam could also be affixed at some distance below the top, often in a mortise, to form a lowercase t-shape called a Latin cross, and a sign was fastened to the top with the name of the victim, used for executing kings. To mock Christ as "King of the Jews," Christ was crucified on such a cross, and the standard Latin Cross
was used. Alternatively, the other crosses could consist of two diagonal beams to form an X, alternatively known as the decussate cross (after decem
, Latin for 'ten', 'X' being the Roman numeral for ten) or as Saint Andrew
Additionally, evidence supports the theory that malefactors were sometimes nailed to a 'crux simplex', a single, upright wooden stake, with no transom at all, which was often used for ancient ordeals similar to crucifixion. The original Greek word 'stauros', indicates cross, while the word 'xylon' indicates a stake or tree. Archaeological and literary evidence discussed elsewhere in this article supports the belief that actual Latin cross
es were used as a means of execution, but a few saints' hagiographies concur with occasional variations in shape, e.g.
upside down or X-shaped (saltire
). Also, prior to Jesus' crucifixion, in the Roman territory of Judea
, criminals and rebels were put to death by crucifixion, and documents suggest that the cross used was a + shape.
Location of the nailsright|thumbnail|300px|Religious depictions of the crucifixion of [Jesus
typically show him supported by nails through the palms.]
For the sake of expediency, the victim was likely affixed to the cross by ropes, nails, or some combination of the two. In popular depictions of crucifixion (possibly derived from a literal reading of the translated description in the Gospel of John
, of Jesus' wounds being 'in the hands'), the victim is shown supported only by nails driven straight through the feet and the palms of the hands, which is possible, if there was a foot-rest to relieve the weight; on their own, the hands could not support the full body weighthttp://www.apu.edu/infocus/2002/03/crucifixion/
Another possibility, that does not require tying, is that the nails were inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm (the radius
and the ulna
). The nails could also be driven through the wrist, in a space between four carpal
bones (which is the location shown in the Shroud of Turin
). As some historians have suggested, the Gospel word χειρ (cheir
) that is translated as 'hand' may have in fact included everything below the mid-forearm. Indeed, Acts 12:7 uses this word to report chains falling off from Peter's 'hands', although the chains would be around what we would call 'wrists'. This shows that the semantic range of χειρ is wider than the English 'hand', and can incorporate nails through the wrist.
Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe
, is that the nails may have been driven in on an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel
, or a foot-rest, was often attached to the cross, for the purpose of taking the man's weight off the wrists. This was most likely a simple peg or slab of wood, upon which the victim would rest the feet.
A new study and a documentary on the National Geographic Channel
's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion
, as well as a brief news article
on the experiment and the documentary, have shown that a person can be suspended by the wrists. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body. The palms were probably not the location for the nails, because there are no structures in the hands to prevent the nails from ripping through the flesh due to the weight of the body.
Cause of death
Death could come in hours or even days, depending on exact methods, the health of those crucified, and environmental circumstances.
A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet
holds that the typical cause of death was asphyxiation
. He conjectured that when the whole body weight was supported by the stretched arms, the victim would have severe difficulty exhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the lungs. The victim would therefore have to draw himself up by his arms, or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block. Indeed, Roman executioners were said to break the victim's legs, after he had hung for some time, in order to hasten his death. Once deprived of support and unable to lift himself, the victim would die within a few minutes. If death did not come from asphyxiation, it could result from a number of other causes, including physical shock
caused by the scourging
that preceded the crucifixion, and the nailing itself, dehydration
Experiments by Frederick Zugibe
have revealed that, when suspended with arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical, test subjects had no difficulty breathing, only rapidly-increasing discomfort and pain. This would correspond to the Roman use of crucifixion as a prolonged, agonizing, humiliating death. Zugibe claims that the breaking of the crucified victim's legs to hasten death, mentioned in the Gospel accounts, was done in order to cause severe traumatic shock or death by fat embolism
, and only as a coup de grace
. Crucifixion on a single pole with no transom, with hands affixed over one's head, would precipitate rapid asphyxiation if no block was provided to stand on, or once the legs were broken.
It was, however, possible to survive crucifixion, and there are records of people who did (as with hanging
in the West). The historian Josephus, a Judaean who defected to the Roman side during the Jewish uprising of AD66 - 72, describes finding two of his friends crucified. He begged for and was granted their reprieve; one died, the other recovered. Josephus gives no details of the method or duration of crucifixion before their reprieve.
Archeological evidence for ancient crucifixion
Despite the fact that the ancient Jewish historian Josephus
, as well as other sources, refer to the crucifixion of thousands of people by the Romans, there is only a single archeological discovery of a crucified body dating back to the Roman Empire around the time of Jesus which was discovered in Jerusalem. It is not surprising that there is only one such discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the cross and therefore would not be preserved. The only reason these archeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial.
The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary
with the crucified man’s name on it, 'Yehohanan, the son of Hagakol'. The ossuary contained a heel with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the heels may have been driven through the sides of the tree (one on the left side, one on the right side, and not with both feet together in front). The nail had olive wood on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olivewood or on an olive tree. Since olive trees are not very tall, this would suggest that victims were crucified at eye level. Additionally, the piece of olive wood was located between the heel and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the victim from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail. His legs were found broken. It is thought that since in Roman times iron was expensive, the nails were removed from the dead body to cut the costs, which would help to explain why only one has been found, as the back of the nail was bent in such a way that it couldn't be removed.Important references for the ancient practice of crucifixion and an examination of archeological evidence:
* Tzaferis, Vassilios. “Crucifixion -- The Archaeological Evidence”, Biblical Archaeology Review
11, February, 1985: 44–53.
* Zias, Joseph. “The Crucified Man from Giv’at Ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal”, Israel Exploration Journal
35 (1), 1985: 22–27.
* Hengel, Martin. Crucifixion
(Augsburg Fortress, 1977). ISBN 0-8006-1268-X.
History of crucifixion
Punishment by crucifixion was widely employed in ancient times. It was used by Assyria
, Achaemenid Persia
, the Greeks, Carthaginians, Macedonians and from very early times Rome. There is evidence that captured pirates were crucified in the port of Athens around the 7th century BC.
Crucifixion was common method of punishment in Egypt however unlike other areas it was done by cutting the opposite limbs of a person and using the palm tree as a stake according to "Die Sprache Der Pharaonen Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch, a concise Egyptian-German dictionary" http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Contrad/External/crucify.html
The earliest historical record of crucifixion was made in 519 BC when Darius I
, the Persian King of Kings
, crucified 3000 political opponents in Babylon
Some Christian theologians, beginning with St. Paul writing in Galatians
3:13, have intepreted an allusion to crucifixion in Deuteronomy
21:22-23. This reference is to being hanged from a tree, and may be associated with lynching
or traditional hanging. However, ancient Jewish law allowed only 4 methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation. Crucifixion was thus forbidden by ancient Jewish law
[See Mishnah, Sanhedrin 7:1, translated in Jacob Neusner, The Mishnah: A New Translation 591 (1988), supra note 8, at 595-96 (indicating that court ordered execution by stoning, burning, decapitation, or strangulation only)]
.Alexander the Great
is reputed to have executed 2000 survivors from his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre
, as well as the doctor who unsuccessfully treated Alexander's friend Hephaestion
. Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes
, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander's adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration.
In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on a general for suffering a major defeat.
In Ancient Rome
, the custom of crucifixion may have developed out of the primitive custom of arbori suspendere
, hanging - nailed or bound - on the arbor infelix
, 'unfortunate tree' which was dedicated to the gods of the nether world (Seneca ("Epistola", 101) still calls the cross infelix lignum
, 'unfortunate wood'; trees were often used for crucifying convicts, e.g. Tertullian, "Apologia", viii. 16), and/or be adopted from Carthage
, and was used for slaves
, rebels, pirates
and especially-despised enemies and criminal
s. Therefore crucifixion was considered a most shameful and disgraceful way to die. Condemned Roman citizens were usually exempt from crucifixion (like feudal nobles from hanging, dying more honorably by decapitation) except for major crimes against the state, such as high treason
The Romans used it for the crimes of piracy, highway robbery, assassination, forgery, false testimony, mutiny, high treason and rebellion.
Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War
(the slave rebellion under Spartacus
), the Roman Civil War
, and the destruction of Jerusalem
tells a story of the Romans crucifying people along the walls of Jerusalem. He also says that the Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions. In Roman-style crucifixion, the victim took days to die slowly from suffocation — caused by the victim's blood-supply slowly draining away to a quantity insufficient to supply the required oxygen to vital organs. The dead body was left up for vulture
s and other birds to consume.
The goal of Roman crucifixion was not just to kill the criminal, but also to mutilate and dishonour the body of the condemned. In ancient tradition, an honourable death required burial; leaving a body on the cross, so as to mutilate it and prevent its burial, was a grave dishonour for the victim.
Under ancient Roman penal practice, crucifixion was not only a means of execution, but also a means of exhibiting the criminal’s low social status. It was the most dishonourable death imaginable, originally reserved for slaves, hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca
, later extended to provincial freedmen of obscure station ('humiles'). The elite of Roman society (only about 10% of the population) were almost never subject to corporal punishments; instead, they were fined or exiled. Josephus mentions Jews of high rank who were crucified, but this was to point out that their status had been taken away from them. Control of one’s own body was vital in the ancient world. Capital punishment
took away control over one’s own body, thereby implying a loss of status and honour. The Romans often broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually forbade burial.
A cruel prelude was scourging
, which would cause the victim to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock
. The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum
) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole cross. Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a commanding centurion
and four soldiers. When it was done in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes
) could even be permanently embedded in the ground. The victim was usually stripped naked - the New Testament gospel
s, dated to around the same time as Josephus, describe soldiers gambling for the robes of Jesus.
The 'nails' were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inch (13 to 18 cm) long, with a square shaft 3/8 inch (1 cm) across. In some cases, the nails were gathered afterwards and used as healing amulets.Emperor Constantine
, the first Emperor known to receive a Christian baptism
, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire at the end of his reign.
Crucifixion in the Qur'an
The Muslim Qur'an
mentions crucifixion several times. In Surah
, around 1500-1200 BC
, says that he will crucify
his chief wizards. Also, Surah 12:41 mentions Joseph saying that the Pharaoh
of the time (about 800-1100 BC
) would crucify one of his prisoners.
:'And the wizards fell down prostrate, crying: "We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, The Lord of Moses and Aaron". Pharaoh said: "Ye believe in Him before I give you leave! Lo! this is the plot that ye have plotted in the city that ye may drive its people hence. But ye shall come to know! Surely I shall have your hands and feet cut off upon alternate sides. Then I shall crucify you every one."' Surah 7:120-124
:'O my two fellow-prisoners! As for one of you, he will pour out wine for his lord to drink; and as for the other, he will be crucified so that the birds will eat from his head. Thus is the case judged concerning which ye did inquire.' Surah 12:41
Crucifixion was used in Japan
before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate
. It was called Haritsuke
The victim—usually a sentenced criminal—was hoisted upon a T-shaped cross. Then, executioner
s killed him with spears. The body was left to hang for a time before burial.
, twenty-six Christian
s were nailed to crosses at Nagasaki
, Japan. Among those executed were Paul Miki
and Pedro Bautista
, a Spanish Franciscan
who had worked about ten years in the Philippines
Modern death on the cross
*Execution by crucifixion, while rare in recent times, was used at Dachau
during the Holocaust
and in a number of wars
, such as in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge
and during the Sino-Japanese war
, where it was among the many methods of torture
and execution used by Japanese
soldiers against Asian civilians - largely in emulation of medieval Japanese military practices.
*During World War I
, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers had crucified a Canadian soldier
on a tree or barn door with bayonet
s or combat knives. The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division
. However, it is generally believed to be an allied propaganda invention (see for example http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/s_z/sandburg/war.htm
*Photographic evidence exists positing that some victims of the Armenian Genocide
were crucified by Ottoman
*There are persistent stories that crucifixions continue to occur in certain parts of Africa
, particularly in Sudan
. According to reports, many Sudanese -like animists, Christians are 'naturally' suspect of separatism against the predominantly Islamic republic- have been nailed to crude crosses in remote areas on the plains, where access by reporters and Western witnesses is limited. Al Jazeera
reported in 2002 the crucifixion of 32 Christian priests and other males, some still in their early teens. They were allegedly whipped severely and affixed to crosses with six-inch nails through their hands, ankles and genitals.
Modern crucifixions without death
In North Korean POW camps
In MGM's 1954 movie, Prisoner of War,
Steve Forrest, Robert Horton, and several other actors are shown stripped to their undershorts and tied, crucifixion style, to wooden frameworks inside a North Korean POW camp. Their feet barely touch the ground and they are said to be left in this torturous position for hours, perhaps even days at a time. Allen Rivkin wrote the movie's screenplay and according to the MGM pressbook, he researched the subject by interviewing 60 recently repatriated American soldiers who'd spent as much as 33 months as prisoners of the North Koreans. According to Rivkin, all the tortures shown in the movie were based on testimony given him in these interviews.
Crucifixion as a devotional practice
Since at least the mid-1800s, a group of Catholic flagellants
in New Mexico
called Hermanos de Luz ('Brothers of Light') have annually conducted reenactments of Jesus Christ's crucifixion during Holy Week
, where a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross.
Some very devout Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally crucified for a limited time on Good Friday
, to imitate the suffering of Jesus Christ. A notable example is the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in the town of Iztapalapa
, on the outskirts of Mexico City
, since 1833
Devotional crucifixions are also common in the Philippines
, even driving nails through the hands (e.g. a man vowed to do it 15 times after a difficult childbirth). In San Pedro Cutud
, devotee Ruben Enaje
has been crucified 20 times, as of 2006, during Passion Week
In many cases the person portraying Jesus is previously subjected to flagellation
(e.g. flailing) and wears a crown of thorns
. Sometimes there is a whole passion play
, sometimes only the mortification of the flesh.
Parodythumb|125px|Crucifixion (Hypercubic Body) by [Salvador Dalí
In a more jocular context, the victim of a prank (such as a bridegroom in 'macho' circles where he is traditionally abused at the end of his stag night) or of hazing
may be bound to a cross as a variation of treeing
On October 26
, a mock crucifixion was staged by Extreme Championship Wrestling wrestlers Raven
and The Sandman
for the High Incident
event held at the ECW Arena
. In this mock crucifixion, Raven tied Sandman to a cross and placed a crown of barbed wire
(mocking the Crown of Thorns) on Sandman's head. ECW and Raven subsequently (and for Raven, reluctantly) apologized for the incident. This incident was instrumental in Kurt Angle
signing with the World Wrestling Federation
instead of ECW, as Angle was at the show and was "horrified" by the goings on. Afterwards Angle threatened ECW owner Paul Heyman
with a lawsuit if Angle was ever associated, in any way, with the mock crucifixion.
On a taped edition of WWF Monday Night RAW
, which aired on December 8
(recorded on December 2
), The Undertaker
handcuffed Stone Cold Steve Austin
, crucifix-style, to a large version of the Undertaker's symbol http://www.obsessedwithwrestling.com/pictures/s/steveaustin/85.jpg
, a combination of a shovel, pick, and sickle which resembled a cross. This caused announcer Jim Ross
to proclaim 'Austin has been crucified!' However, later that week, Ross suffered a bout of Bells palsy
, and WWF fans already started complaining about the event. To save face, the WWF
edited out all audio and video footage of Jim Ross from that episode and had Michael Cole
and Jerry Lawler
provide post-production commentary. In addition, when the crucifixion angle played, Cole said 'Austin has been tied to the Undertaker's symbol!'.
Shortly after WrestleMania XV
, the Undertaker mock-crucified The Big Boss Man
on his symbol. Finally, on the edition of Monday Night RAW
that had been aired on the Monday prior to Over the Edge 1999
, the Undertaker attempted to mock-crucify Austin again, but Austin reversed it, causing the Undertaker to be crucified. The WWF, which has since become the WWE, has not staged a mock-crucifixion since.
had opened her concerts during her recent tour with a mock crucifixion, complete with a Crown of Thorns. This has caused considerable controversy, especially when she pulled the stunt at a concert near Vatican City
Crucifixion was parodied in the comedy film Monty Python's Life of Brian
has parodied the crucifixion of Jesus several times, in videos such as "I Don't Like The Drugs But The Drugs Like Me" and "Coma White".
*The rebel slaves of the Third Servile War
: Between 73 BC and 71 BC a band of slaves, eventually numbering about 120,000, under the (at least partial) leadership of Spartacus
were in open revolt against the Roman republic
. The rebellion was eventually crushed, and while Spartacus himself most likely died in the final battle of the revolt, approximately 6,000 of his followers were crucified along the 200 km road between Capua and Rome, as a warning to any other would-be rebels.
*Jesus of Nazareth
: the best-known victim of crucifixion in history, Jesus Christ, was condemned to crucifixion (most likely in AD 29) by Pilate
, the Roman governor of Judea. According to the New Testament, this was at the instigation of the Jewish leaders who were scandalized by his claim to being the Messiah and his disdain for their religious practices. The original Greek text of the Gospels leaves doubt on whether the instrument used to execute Jesus was actually a cross (see sub-article Rendering of σταυρός (staurós)
, Christian apostle: according to tradition, Peter was crucified upside down at his own request (hence the Cross of St. Peter
), as he did not feel worthy to die the same way as Jesus (for he had denied him three times previously). Note that upside-down crucifixion would not result in death from asphyxiation.
, Christian apostle: according to tradition, crucified on an X-shaped cross, hence the name St. Andrew's Cross
*Simeon of Jerusalem
, 2nd Bishop of Jerusalem
, crucified 106-107
*Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln
, was an English boy whose disappearance in 1255 prompted a blood libel against the local Jews. A Jewish man was tortured until he "confessed" to killing the child. The story of Little Saint Hugh became well known through medieval ballad poetry.
of Nizhny Novgorod
: reportedly crucified upside down, on the Royal Doors of the Cathedral in Sevastopol
, Ukrainian SSR
Crucifixion of Jesus in the movies
Movies dating back to the days of the silent film
s have depicted the crucifixion of Jesus. Most of these follow the traditional (and often inaccurate) pattern established by medieval and Renaissance artists, though there have been several notable exceptions. In The Passover Plot
(1976) the two thieves aren't shown to either side of Jesus but instead one is on a cross behind and facing him while the other is on a cross in front of and facing away from him. Jesus
(1979) may be the first Biblical movie to show the nails being driven through the wrists rather than the palms. It is also one of the first movies to show Jesus carrying just the crossbeam to Calvary rather than the entire cross. The Last Temptation of Christ
is the first movie to show Jesus naked on the . In The Gospel of John
(2003), Jesus' feet are shown being nailed through the ankle to each side of the upright portion of the cross. In The Passion of the Christ
(2004), the crucifixion scene depicts Jesus's hands being impaled, and the centurions dislocating his shoulder in order to impale his right hand, and impaling his feet, and then turning the cross over to block the nails from coming out.
, a devotional representation
*People executed by crucifixion
*http://www.archangelsbooks.com/products.asp?cat=11 Orthodox Christian Icons of the Crucifixion
*http://www.wikichristian.org/index.php?title=The_death_of_Jesus The death of Jesus at WikiChristian
*http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=lw195 New Scientist
article on cause of death in crucifixion.
*http://e-forensicmedicine.net/Turin2000.htm "Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion" by Dr. Frederick Zugibe
*http://www.konnections.com/Kcundick/crucifix.html Jesus's death on the cross, from a medical perspective
*http://www.joezias.com/CrucifixionAntiquity.html "Crucifixion in antiquity - The Anthropological evidence"
By Joe Zias
*http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=905&letter=C Jewish Encyclopedia: Crucifixion
* http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Contrad/External/crucify.htmlCategory:Ancient RomeCategory:ChristianityCategory:Sorrowful MysteriesCategory:JesusCategory:Corporal punishmentsCategory:Execution methodsCategory:TortureCategory:Human body positionsCategory:Cross symbolsCategory:Gospel episodesCategory:Christian hagiographyar:صلب المسيحca:Crucifixiócs:Ukřižovánída:Korsfæstelsede:Kreuzigungel:Σταύρωσηes:Crucifixióneo:Krucumadofr:Crucifixionko:십자가형id:Penyalibanit:Crocifissionehe:צליבהka:ჯვარცმაhu:Keresztre feszítésnl:Kruisigingja:磔no:Korsfestelsepl:Ukrzyżowaniept:Crucificaçãoru:Распятие (казнь)fi:Ristiinnaulitseminensv:Korsfästelsezh:十字架