, Emmy Noether, Emmy Destinn
, Daytime Emmy Award
, Emmy Rossum
, Emmy Hennings
, Hurricane Emmy (1976)
, Emmy Sonnemann
, Emmy Bridgwater
Amalie Emmy Noether
[ Her nephew Gottfried E. Noether writes: "Amalie Emmy Noether, known to mathematicians throughout the world as Emmy Noether, ...",]
Noether (1987), p. 165.
http://www.physikerinnen.de/noetherlebenslauf.html Emmy Noether (1882-1935) - Lebensläufe de .
(March 23 1882
– April 14 1935
) was a German
, said by Einstein in eulogy to be "i
n the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians, ...
the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began."
Almost universally known as Emmy Noether
, she had penetrating insights that she used to develop elegant abstractions.
She was born in Erlangen
. Her father, Max Noether
, was a distinguished mathematician and a professor at Erlangen
. Fritz Noether
was her younger brother, and Gottfried E. Noether
was her nephew.
[Noether (1987), p. 165 and, in the same volume, p. 290.]
Noether did not show any early precocity at mathematics — as a teenager she was more interested in music and dancing.
Although Erlangen did not allow women to enroll, Noether was able to sit in classes. When Erlangen finally permitted women to enroll in 1904
, Noether immediately enrolled as a mathematics
student. She received her doctorate in 1907
under Paul Gordan
, and she quickly built a reputation from her publications. She moved to Göttingen
, but the University of Göttingen
refused to let her teach. Her sympathetic colleague, David Hilbert
, advertised her courses in the university's schedule under his own name. A controversy ensued, with her opponents asking what the country's soldiers would think when they returned home and were expected to learn at the feet of a woman. Allowing her on the faculty would also mean letting her have a vote in the academic senate. Said Prof. Hilbert, "I do not see that the sex of the candidate is against her admission as a Privatdozent.
After all, the university senate is not a bathhouse." She was finally admitted to the faculty in 1919
. Edmund Landau
declined to describe her as the daughter of Max Noether; but rather stated, "Max Noether was the father of Emmy Noether. Emmy is the origin of coordinates
in the Noether family."
Noether fled Germany in 1933
; she had been forbidden from teaching undergraduate classes by the Nazi
racial laws. She joined the faculty at Bryn Mawr College
in the United States
. She died at Bryn Mawr on 14 April 1935 in mysterious circumstances. Her doctor told her that she needed an operation, and she scheduled it during a college break at Bryn Mawr, without telling anyone. She perished during or shortly after the surgery. Noether never married, and she had no relatives in the USA. Noether was buried in the Cloisters of Thomas Great Hall on the Bryn Mawr Campus.
Her younger brother, the German mathematician Fritz Noether, fled Germany
during the Nazi
rule into the Soviet Union
in 1934 and he was shot there for anti-Soviet propaganda at Orel
on Sept. 10th, 1941.
is a central result in theoretical physics that expresses the one-to-one correspondence between symmetries and conservation laws.
*The Lasker–Noether theorem
in commutative algebra
is a fundamental result that describes the decomposition of ideals into primary ideal
s are those such that every ideal is finitely generated.
*Along with Artin and Hasse, she founded the theory of central simple algebra
*Noether worked with David Hilbert
on the equations of Albert Einstein
's general theory of relativity
. She received no recognition for this work while
* Noether isomorphism theorem
* Emmy Noether, http://dz-srv1.sub.uni-goettingen.de/sub/digbib/loader?ht=VIEW&did=D27924 Abstrakter Aufbau der Idealtheorie in algebraischen Zahl- und Funktionenkörpern
, Mathematische Annalen 96
(1927) p. 26-61
*cite book |last=Brewer |first=James W. |authorlink= |coauthors=Martha K. Smith (eds.) |others= |title=Emmy Noether : a tribute to her life and work |year=c1981 |publisher=Marcel Dekker |location=New York |id=ISBN 0824715500 http://catalog.loc.gov/
*cite book |last=Dick |first=Auguste |authorlink= |coauthors= |others=H. I. Blocher (trans.) |title=Emmy Noether, 1882-1935 |year=1981 |publisher=Birkhäuser |location=Boston |id=ISBN 3764330198 http://catalog.loc.gov/ http://www.oeaw.ac.at/biblio/Archiv/Dick/dick.html (About the author de )
*cite news |first=Albert |last=Einstein |authorlink= |author= |coauthors= |title=Emmy Noether: Professor Einstein Writes in Appreciation of a Fellow-Mathematician |url=http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Obits2/Noether_Emmy_Einstein.html |format= |work=New York Times | publisher= |pages= |page= | date=May 5, 1935 | accessdate= | language=
*Harvard reference |Surname=Noether |Given=Gottfried E. |Authorlink= |Year=1987 |Chapter=Emmy Noether (1882-1935) |Editor=Louise S. Grinstein and Paul J. Campbell |Title=Women of mathematics : a biobibliographic sourcebook, with a foreword by Alice Schafer |Place=New York |Publisher=Greenwood Press |Pages=165-170 |ID=ISBN 0313248494 http://catalog.loc.gov/
* http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/noether.htm Emmy Noether
, Mandie Taylor, in: Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
* Joint biography with Sophia Kovalevsky
: http://library.thinkquest.org/22584/temh3005.htm Kovalevsky and Noether
* http://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Noether,[email protected] UCLA page about Emmy Noether
* ScienceWorldBiography | urlname=NoetherEmmy | title=Noether, Emmy
* http://www.physikerinnen.de/noetherlebenslauf.html Emmy Noether (1882-1935) - Lebensläufe
de Application for admission to the University of Erlangen
and three curricula vitae
, two of which are shown in handwriting, with transcriptions. The first of these is in Emmy Noether's own handwriting.
* Two versions of her 1908 doctoral dissertation
completed at Erlangen. The second is the published version. http://dz-srv1.sub.uni-goettingen.de/sub/digbib/loader?ht=VIEW&did=D39728 http://dz-srv1.sub.uni-goettingen.de/sub/digbib/loader?ht=VIEW&did=D261200
de Noether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, EmmyNoether, Emmyca:Emmy Noetherde:Emmy Noetherfr:Emmy Noethergl:Emmy Noetherit:Emmy Noetherhe:אמי נתרhu:Emmy Noethernl:Emmy Noetherja:エミー・ネーターpl:Emmy Noetherru:Нётер, Эммиsv:Emmy Noetherzh:埃米·诺特