Honolulu, Hawaii, City & County of Honolulu
, Honolulu Marathon
, Honolulu Zoo
, USS Honolulu
, The Honolulu Advertiser
, Honolulu Weekly
, Honolulu Hale
, Honolulu Harbor
, Honolulu Stadium
is the capital
and the most populous community of the State of i
. In the Hawaiian language
means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter." The census-designated place
(CDP) is located along the southeast coast of the island of . The term also refers to the District of Honolulu (see Geography below). As of July 1, 2004, the United States Census Bureau
estimate for Honolulu puts the population at 377,260 and that of the city and county (essentially, the Island of ahu) at 900,000. In i, local governments operate only at the county level, and the City & County of Honolulu
encompasses all of the Island of ahu (approximately 600 square miles).
Historyright|thumb|300px|View of the DFS Galleria in [Waikīkī
It is not known when Honolulu was first settled by the original Polynesia
n migrants to the archipelago. Oral histories and artifacts indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 12th century. However, after Kamehameha I
conquered in the Battle of , he moved his royal court from the Island of i
in 1804. His court later relocated, in 1809, to what is now downtown Honolulu
Captain William Brown of England was the first foreigner to sail, in 1794, into what is now Honolulu Harbor. More foreign ships would follow, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.
In 1845, Kamehameha III
moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lāhainā
to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral
, , and . At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the Islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.
Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, which saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, i's subsequent annexation by the United States
, and the Japan
ese attack on Pearl Harbor
, Honolulu would remain the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.
An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and i. Modern air travel would bring thousands, eventually millions (per annum) of visitors to the Islands. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in i, with thousands of hotel rooms.
Geography and climate
Honolulu is located at 21°18'32" North, 157°49'34" West (21.308950, . While this is clearly in the tropics
, the climate
) is moderated by the mid-ocean location and some cooling achieved by the California Current
that passes through the islands much of year. The average daily low and high temperatures in January are 65/80 °F (18/27 °C) and in July are 74/88 °F (23/31 °C). Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) only rarely, with lows in the 50's °F (15 °C) occurring perhaps once or twice in a year. The hottest temperature
ever recorded in Honolulu was 95 °F (35 °C) on September 19
and the coldest temperature
ever recorded was 53 °F (11.6 °C) on January 31
, 1972 and 1948 and on January 20
and on February 1
and February 2
, 1976 and on February 9
and on February 12
.thumb|300px|left|Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station
The Honolulu District
is located on the southeast coast of O‘ahu between and Hālawa
. The District boundary follows the olau crestline, so u Beach is in the olaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Hālawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill
and runs just west of Āliamanu Crater
, so that Aloha Stadium
, Pearl Harbor
(with the USS Arizona Memorial
), and Hickam Air Force Base
are actually all located in the island's Ewa District.
Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Mānoa in Mānoa Valley) and others climb the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found several volcanic cone
, Diamond Head
, Koko Head
(includes Hanauma Bay
), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Āliamanu being the most conspicuous.
Honolulu and Juneau, Alaska
are the only two US state capitals that cannot be reached directly by road from the contiguous 48 States. Direct connections to these capitals require a boat or a plane.
main|City & County of
Originally governed by a Board of Supervisors, the City & County of Honolulu
is administered under a mayor-council
system of governance overseeing all municipal services: civil defense, driver licensing, emergency medical, fire, parks and recreation, police, sanitation, streets, vehicle registration, voter registration, water, among others. One of the largest municipal governments in the United States, the City & County of Honolulu has an annual operating budget of $1 billion.
The current mayor of Honolulu is Mufi Hannemann
(term ends January 2009).
Neighborhoods and special districtsright|thumb|250px|View of downtown Honolulu at Bishop and King streets with First Hawaiian Center building (left) and Bank of i (right)
* Downtown Honolulu
is the financial, commercial, and governmental center of i. On the waterfront is Aloha Tower
, which for many years was the tallest building in i. Currently the tallest building is the 438-foot-tall (134 m) First Hawaiian Center
, located on King and Bishop Streets (http://www.lightfantastic.org/imr/places/firsthawaiiancenter.html
* The Capitol District
is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of i's state government, incorporating the , , Honolulu Hale
(City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I
, along with numerous government buildings.
is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas, Ward Warehouse
and Ward Centre
. The John A. Burns School of Medicine
, part of the University of i at Mānoa
is also located there. A Memorial to the Ehime Maru Incident
victims is built at ako Waterfront Park.
is the world famous tourist district of Honolulu, located between the Ala Wai Canal
and the Pacific Ocean
next to Diamond Head
. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalākaua and Kuhio Avenues. World-famous Waikīkī Beach
attracts millions of visitors a year. Just west of Waikīkī is Ala Moana Center
, the world's largest open-air shopping center. A majority of the hotel rooms on ahu are located in Waikīkī.right|thumb|250px|Downtown Honolulu as seen from the Capitol Districtright|thumb|250px|[Honolulu Hale
are residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Mānoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of i
* uanu and Pauoa
are middle-class to upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
is located in Punchbowl Crater
fronting Pauoa Valley.
are neighborhoods east of Mānoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Mānoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimukī is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on alae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimukī.
* alae and Kāhala
are the upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the and the Kāhala Mandarin Oriental Hotel
* East Honolulu
includes the residential communities of Āina Haina, Niu Valley
. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods.
* Kalihi and Pālama
are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.
* Salt Lake
and Āliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones
along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the Honolulu International Airport
is two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center
* Hawaii Kai
is a large residential area in the extreme eastern end of the island. The upscale gated community Hawaii Loa Ridge is located here.
As of the 2000
, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the CDP. The population density
was 1,674.4/km² (4,336.6/mi²). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 714.8/km² (1,851.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.67% White
; 1.62% Black
or African American
; 0.19% Native American
; 55.85% Asian
; 6.85% Pacific Islander
; 0.89% from other races
; and 14.93% from two or more races. 4.37% of the population were Hispanic
of any race.
Of the 140,337 households, 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples
living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.
In Honolulu in 2000, the age distribution was 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city proper was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The per capita income
for the CDP was $24,191. 11.8% of the population and 7.9% of families were below the poverty line
. Out of the total population, 14.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
further|List of famous people from
Located on the western end of Honolulu proper, Honolulu International Airport
(HNLA) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of i.
s serve Honolulu:
* Interstate H-1
, which, coming into the city from the west, passes Hickam Air Force Base
and Honolulu International Airport, runs just north of Downtown and continues eastward through Makiki and Kaimukī, ending at alae/Kāhala. West of the city proper, H-1 connects to Interstate H-2
and Interstate H-3
* Interstate H-201—also known as the Moanalua Freeway and formerly numbered i State Rte. 78—connects two points along H-1: at Aloha Stadium
and Fort Shafter
. Close to H-1 and Aloha Stadium, H-201 has an exchange with the western terminus of Interstate H-3
to the windward side of ahu (). This complex of connecting ramps, some directly between H-1 and H-3, is in Hālawa
Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of ahu are:
* Pali Highway
, State Rte. 61, crosses north over the olau range via the Pali Tunnels to connect to Kailua
and on the windward side of the Island.
* Likelike Highway, State Rte. 63, also crosses the olau to ohe via the Wilson Tunnels.
* Kalanianaole Highway, State Rte. 72, runs eastward from alae/Kāhala to and around the east end of the island to Waimānalo Beach
* Kamehameha Highway
, State Rte. 99, runs westward from near Hickam Air Force Base
to and beyond, eventually running through the center of the island and ending in Kāne‘ohe
Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, Ewa, , Pearl City
, and Mililani
. Land for expanding road capacity is at a premium everywhere on ahu.
Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi
, Honolulu's public transit
system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association
bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994-1995 and 2000-2001. ahu Transit Services' "TheBus
" operates 93 routes with a fleet of 525 buses.
Currently, there is no fixed-rail mass transit system in Honolulu. However, in 2004, the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawai‘i approved development of an action plan for a fixed rail mass transit system to be built in several phases. The initial line could link Kapolei in West O‘ahu to UH Manoa
. Several attempts had been made since the 1980s and 1990s to construct a fixed rail mass transit system but stalled during Honolulu City Council hearings.
Also in 2004, construction had started on a bus rapid transit
(BRT) system using dedicated rights-of-way for buses. The system, proposed by former Mayor Jeremy Harris
, was expected to link the Iwilei neighborhood with Waikīkī
. However, current Mayor Mufi Hannemann
has largely dismantled the BRT system and deployed its buses along other express bus routes.
Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony
is the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the . Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music
. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Center
Concert Hall, the Waikīkī Shell
, and the .
Honolulu also includes several venues for live theatre
, including the Diamond Head Theatre
and the Manoa Valley Theatre
Located near downtown Honolulu
, the premier venue for visual arts in i is the Honolulu Academy of Arts
. The Honolulu Academy of Arts features the largest collection of Western and Asian art in i and also hosts a year-round film and video program dedicated to the presentation of arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke
Theatre. The Contemporary Museum
is the main museum of contemporary art in the state.
* Foster Botanical Garden
* Liliʻuokalani Botanical Garden
* Walker Estate
Other museums, aquariums, zoos, and cultural centers
* The Bishop Museum
is the largest museum in the State of i and houses millions of natural history specimens and cultural artifacts relating to i and the Pacific.
* The Honolulu Academy of Arts
has steadily grown to become Hawai‘i’s largest private presenter of visual arts programs, boasting a permanent collection of over 40,000 works of art from cultures around the world.
* The Waikīkī Aquarium
and the Honolulu Zoo
are both located at the eastern end of Waikīkī in .
* The Hawaii State Art Museum (HISAM) (http://www.state.hi.us/sfca/ official site
) is located in the downtown district in the old YMCA building and features local artists. Blessed with both a great collection and a competent house staff.
* Shangri La (Doris Duke)
Currently, Honolulu has no professional sports teams. However, Honolulu hosts the NFL
's annual Pro Bowl
each February in addition to the NCAA
football Hawaii Bowl
. Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football
, and baseball
programs of the University of i at Manoa
. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular. Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:
* Aloha Stadium
* Les Murakami Stadium
at UH-Manoa (baseball
* Stan Sheriff Center
at UH-Manoa (basketball
* Neal Blaisdell Center
Honolulu's mild climate lends itself to year-round fitness activities as well. In 2004, Men's Fitness
magazine named Honolulu the fittest
city in the U.S. Honolulu is also home to three large road race
* The Great Aloha Run
is held annually on Presidents' Day
* The Honolulu Marathon
, held annually on the second Sunday in December, draws more than 20,000 participants each year, about half to two thirds of them from Japan
* The Honolulu Triathlon
held its first race in 2004, when it hosted the US Olympic
Triathlon Trials, and is billed as Hawaii's premier Olympic-distance triathlon. No sprint course is offered during the event, which is held in May.
Former professional franchises
(Pacific Coast League
(North American Soccer League
(World Football League
Honolulu is served by two daily newspapers: the Honolulu Advertiser
and the Honolulu Star-Bulletin
. It is one of the few cities of its size in the U.S. to have more than one daily newspaper.
main|List of television stations in
(http://www.hawaiiradiotv.com/ from hawaiiradiotv.com
Full power TV channels
Low-power TV channels
Digital TV channels
main|List of radio stations in
17 AM radio stations
*590 KSSK AM
20 FM radio stations
Classical, News (National Public Radio
News, Information, Jazz (National Public Radio
Modern Rock, Progressive music
Rhythmic Top 40
Adult Top 40
Hawaiian Adult Contemporary
Hawaiian Top 40
Dance (Broadcasting daily from 2pm to 2am; one of nine full-time dance stations in the US)
Rhythmic Top 40
Rhythmic Top 40
Cable and satellite television
Oceanic-Time Warner Cable (a division of Time Warner Cable
) is the primary cable television carrier in the Honolulu metropolitan area. Satellite television (DIRECTV
, Dish Network
, some C-Band
) is also available as an alternative.
*Honolulu Academy of Arts
*National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
Colleges & universities
*University of i Mānoa
— Students: 21,000 (Manoa Campus)2
— Students: 1,130; Tuition: $13,380/yr2
* — Students: 8,500; Tuition: $10,922/yr2
*Brigham Young i
ie) — Students: 2,400; Tuition: $15,000/yr
Honolulu currently has 26 sister cities
. They are:
- Cebu City
- Hainan Island
, the People's Republic of China
- Hue City
, South Korea
- Kaohsiung Municipality
- Laoag City
- Naha City
- San Juan
- San Juan
, Puerto Rico
, South Korea
- Vigan City
- Zhongshan City
, the People's Republic of China
# Geographic references
# http://www.HONOLULUADVERTISER.com/localnews/ Honolulu Advertiser
, Section B. Monday, June 7, 2004. Estimated student body size and annual tuition for selected colleges on ahu.
, List of Sister Cities for the state of Hawaii, including Honolulu, from Sister Cities International
*http://www.honolulu.gov City & County of Honolulu
*http://www.gohawaii.com/ i Vistors and Convention Bureau
*http://www.eng.hawaii.edu/Trafficam/ Honolulu Traffic Information Center (includes camera links)
*http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/ National Weather Service Honolulu office
*http://www.lcc.hawaii.edu/org/th/index.php?q=front_page Hawaii Community Theatre Web Index
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