Jerusalem, Cyril of Jerusalem
, The Jerusalem Post
, Kingdom of Jerusalem
, Temple in Jerusalem
, Melisende of Jerusalem
, Jerusalem, Ohio
, Jerusalem syndrome
, Fulk of Jerusalem
: , Yerushaláyim
; Moslem Arabic
: , al-Quds
("the Holy"), Christian Arabic اورشليم Ûrshalîm; official Arabic in Israel: اورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds
(combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names)) is the capital
and largest city
*"...modern Jerusalem, Israel's largest city..." (Erlanger, Steven. http://travel2.nytimes.com/2006/04/16/travel/16jerusalem.html Jerusalem, Now, The New York Times, April 16, 2006.)
*"With a population of 701,512 in 2004, Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city. ("http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575008_3/Israel.html Israel (country)", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2006, p. 3. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
*"Since 1975 unified Jerusalem has been the largest city in Israel." (http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-203247 "Jerusalem", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
*"Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city." (http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572316/Jerusalem.html "Jerusalem", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2006, p. 1. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
*"Jerusalem, the capital, is its crowning glory. "Jerusalem is for prayer," says Nisso, our minivan driver, with a twinkle in his dark eyes as we speed away from Israel's largest city." (Lothar, Corrina. http://www.washtimes.com/travel/20061013-085321-7063r.htm Israel's Embrace, The Washington Times, October 14, 2006.)
*"Jerusalem is the largest city in the State of Israel. It has the largest population, the most Jews and the most non-Jews of all Israeli cities." (Klein, Menachem. Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City, New York University Press, March 1, 2001, p. 18. ISBN 0-8147-4754-X)
*"In 1967, Tel Aviv was the largest city in Israel. By 1987, more Jews lived in Jerusalem than the total population of Tel Aviv. Jerusalem had become Israel's premier city." (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, Sep 19, 2000, p. 192. ISBN 0-520-22092-7)
*"Israel's largest city, Jerusalem sprawls over 28 square miles." (Jeffers, H Paul. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Jerusalem, Alpha Books, Mar 2, 2004, p.4. ISBN 1-59257-179-4)
of the State of Israel
with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006
[PDFlink|http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2006n/11_06_106b.pdf Central Bureau of Statistics 2006 ]
) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle East
ern city on the watershed
between the Mediterranean Sea
and the Dead Sea
at an elevation of 650-840 metres (about 2000-2500 feet), Jerusalem is located southeast of Tel Aviv
, south of Ramallah
, west of Jericho
and north of Bethlehem
Jerusalem is the holiest city of Judaism
(since the 10th century BCE) and some denominations of Christianity
(since the 5th century CE). Jewish law
holds that the more important Jewish prayer
s should be conducted facing the direction of the city, specifically in the direction of the Temple Mount
. Jerusalem is generally regarded by Muslims
as the location of the third holiest site in Islam
, and the city was the original Qibla
(direction of prayer) for Muslims prior to Mecca
. Jerusalem appears in the Hebrew Bible
669 times while Zion
(which usually means Jerusalem, sometimes the Land of Israel
) appears 154 times. The New Testament
mentions Jerusalem 154 times and Zion 7 times.
[http://www.danielpipes.org/article/84 The Muslim Claim to Jerusalem]
city with a large Jewish
majority, Jerusalem represents a wide range of national, religious, and socioeconomic groups. The section called the "Old City" (barely 1 km²) is surrounded by walls
and consists of four quarters: Armenian
, and Muslim
. The "Old City" was named by the American television show Good Morning America
and newspaper USA Today
as one of the "New Seven Wonders of the World"
[http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/7Wonders/ ABC Good Morning America "7 New Wonders" Page]
. The status of united Jerusalem as Israel's capital is not universally recognised by the international community
, and Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem
is particularly controversial. East Jerusalem is claimed by Palestinians
as the desired capital for a future Palestinian state
The current Israeli mayor of Jerusalem
is Uri Lupolianski
, the first Haredi
Jew to ever hold this position.
main|Names of thumb|A view of the Old City of Jerusalem taken from the Jewish Cemetery on the [Mount of Olives
The origin of the name of the city is uncertain. It is possible to understand the name (Hebrew Yerushalayim
) as either "Heritage of Salem" or "Heritage of Peace" – a contraction of "heritage" (yerusha
) and either Salem
literally "whole" or "in harmony") or shalom
("peace"). (See the Biblical commentator Nachmanides
for explanation.) "Shalem" is the name used in Genesis
14:18 for the city. Similarly the Amarna Letters
call the city Urušalim
, a cognate of the Hebrew Ir Shalem
("city of Salem"). Some consider a connection between the name and Shalim
- the deity personifying dusk known from Ugaritic
myths and offering lists. The ending -ayim
has the appearance of the Hebrew dual or pluralis. It has been argued that it is a dual form representing the fact that the city lies on two hills however the treatment of the ending as a suffix makes the rest of the name incomprehensible in Hebrew. A Midrash
ic interpretation comes from Genesis Rabba
, which explains that Abraham came to "Shalem" after rescuing Lot
. Upon arrival, he asked the king and high priest Melchizedek
to bless him, and Melchizedek did so in the name of the Supreme God (indicating that he, like Abraham, was a monotheist). According to exegetes, God immortalizes this encounter between Melchizedek and Abraham by renaming the city in honor of them: the name "Yeru" (derived from "Yireh", the name Abraham gives to Mount Moriah
after unbinding Isaac
, and explained in Genesis as meaning that God will be revealed there) is placed in front of "Shalem". The plural ending implies the community of all believers in the One God who testify to the city's holiness.
main|History of 225px|thumb|Reconstruction of the First Temple
Archaeological findings indicate the existence of a settlement in Jerusalem in the 3rd millennium BCE. The earliest written record of the city to Egyptian
records of the Bronze Age
in the 2nd millennium BCE.
The city is believed to have been first built and founded by Canaanite
peoples (possibly, but not necessarily the Jebusites
who occupied the city during the late Bronze Age
). During this Canaanite period, Jerusalem had the name Urušalim
, meaning "the city of peace". From about 1600 to 1300 BCE, the city came under Egyptian suzerainty
and was governed by Canaanite rulers who paid tribute to the Pharaoh
s. citation During this period, the city increasingly came under attacks from the Habiru
.225px|thumb|left|Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus (W. Kaulbach)
According to Midrash
, Jerusalem was founded by Shem
, ancestors of Abraham
. Further, the Bible
mentions that the city was controlled by the Jebusites
until its conquest by David
, at a date subsequently placed at about 1000 BCE.
David expanded the city to the south, and declared it the capital city of the united Kingdom of Israel
. It thus became the capital of the Jewish kingdoms of Israel
in the First Temple
and Second Temple
In about 960 BCE, Solomon
built the First Jewish Temple
. For about four centuries after the ten tribes
split off to form the northern Kingdom of Israel
, Jerusalem served as the capital of the southern Kingdom of Judah
By the end of the First Temple period, Jerusalem was the sole acting religious shrine in the kingdom, and a center of regular pilgrimage. Historical records corroborate some of the Biblical history from around the 9th century BCE, and attest the significance of the Temple in Jewish religious life. In 597 BCE, the city was overcome by the Babylonia
ns under Nebuchadrezzar
, and in 586 BCE, the city's walls were ruined and the Temple was burnt. After several decades of captivity
, the Jews were allowed by Cyrus II of Persia
to return to Judah and rebuild the city and the Temple. It continued to be the capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship for another four centuries under the Hasmonean Kingdom
.225px|thumb|Capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099 (a medieval manuscript)
By 19 BCE, the Temple Mount
was elevated and the Second Temple
was expanded under Herod the Great
, a Jewish client king
rule. In 6 CE, the city and Iudaea Province
came under direct Roman rule. The Great Jewish Revolt
resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. The city served as the national capital again for almost 3 years during the Bar Kokhba's revolt
against Rome; it was sacked in 135 CE. For almost two millennia thereafter, Jerusalem did not serve as the national capital of any independent state, until the renewed independence of Israel
The city remained under Roman
rule, until it was taken by the advancing Muslim forces in 638. The rights of the non-Muslims under Islam were governed by the Pact of Umar
, and Christians and Jews living in the city were granted autonomy in exchange for a required poll tax
. Whereas the Byzantine
Christian authorities had not tolerated the presence of Jews within the walls of the city, the Muslim rulers allowed the reestablishment of a Jewish community.
After the treaty of Capitulation signed with the Byzantines, Umar ordered the Patriarch Sophronius
to guide him and those who accompanied him to the sanctuary of King David, where he later decided to build a mosque in front of the Rock. The mosque became known as Masjid Umar.225px|thumb|left|The oldest printed prospect of Jerusalem (Hartmann Schedel, Nürnberg 1493)
In 1099, the city was conquered by the First Crusade
rs, who slaughtered most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. A series of conquests followed: in 1187 the city was taken from the Crusaders by Saladin
. From 1228 to 1244, it was given by Saladin's descendant al-Kamil
to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II
Jerusalem fell again to the Ayyubids
of Egypt in 1244. The Ayyubids were replaced in 1260 by the Mamelukes
, and in 1517, Jerusalem and its environs fell to the Ottoman Turks
In 1917, the British Army
led by General Allenby
captured the city. Under the League of Nations Mandate
, Britain was entrusted with establishing a Jewish National Home in Palestine. This period saw the construction of new garden suburbs in the western part of the city and establishment of institutions of learning such as the Hebrew University
, founded in 1925.
As the British Mandate of Palestine
was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan
(Part III) recommended that "The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum
under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations." However, this plan was never implemented and at the end of the 1948-49 war, Jerusalem found itself divided between Israel and Jordan
(then known as Transjordan).
The 1949 cease-fire line
between Israel and Jordan, which was part of the Green Line
, cut through the center of the city from 1949 until 1967, during which time west Jerusalem was part of Israel and East Jerusalem
was part of Jordan. From 1950 to 1967, the capital declared by Israel was comprised of western Jerusalem. Ever since Israel captured eastern Jerusalem from Jordan in the 1967 Six-Day War
, Israel has administered and asserted sovereignty
over the entire city.
Israel's 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
declared Jerusalem to be the 'eternal, undivided' capital of Israel, while East Jerusalem is being claimed as the intended capital of a future Palestinian state. The status of the city and of its holy places is disputed.
Status of Jerusalem
main|Religious significance of
Jerusalem plays an important role in three major religions
, and Islam
, as well as in a number of smaller religious groups. A large number of places have religious significance for these religions, among which the Temple Mount
and its Western Wall
for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
for Christians and the Al-Aqsa Mosque
and Dome of the Rock
for Muslims. Currently, there are 1204 synagogue
s, 158 church
es and 73 mosque
s in Jerusalem.
[http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_main/defaultnew.asp?lng=1 Jerusalem website religious facilities]
There are also 70 mikvah
s and 72 monastries
Image:Western wall jerusalem night.jpg|The Western Wall
Image:Holy sepulchre exterior.jpg|Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Image:Al aqsa moschee 2.jpg|The Al-Aqsa Mosque
Jerusalem as the capital of Israel
Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital
in 1950 and all the branches of Israeli government (Presidential, Legislative, Judicial and Administrative) are seated in Jerusalem. In 1950, given that the city was divided between Israel and Jordan
, this proclamation related only to western Jerusalem. Immediately after the Six Day War
, Israeli legislation incorporated East Jerusalem into Israel, annexing it to the municipality of Jerusalem, and making it a de facto
part of its capital. Israel enshrined the status of united Jerusalem, west and east, as its undivided capital, in Israel's 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
. The non-binding United Nations Security Council Resolution 478
declared that this law was 'null and void and must be rescinded forthwith' and advised member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure, which most of the few countries with embassies in Jerusalem did, relocating their embassies to Tel Aviv.
Most UN member states already located their embassy in Tel Aviv prior to Resolution 478. Currently, only one UN member state has located its embassy within the city limits of Jerusalem, El Salvador, with the embassies of Bolivia and Paraguay to be found in Mevasseret Zion, a suburb of Jerusalem. On August 25, 2006, El Salvador stated the intention to relocate its embassy to Tel Aviv.
|title=El Salvador will move embassy to Tel Aviv
|date=Aug. 25, 2006
Jerusalem is home to a number of key Israeli government buildings, including the Knesset
, the Israeli Supreme Court
and the houses of the President
and Prime Minister
. With the exception of the house of the premier, these buildings can be toured.
Some in the international community
argue that Israel's annexation of the eastern part of Jerusalem after the Six-Day War
was in violation of international law, and that the final issue of the status of East Jerusalem should be determined in future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations. Although all ambassadors and other official diplomats submit their accreditation to the President of Israel in his house at Jerusalem, nearly all countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv
, Israel's economic and financial center.
[http://cia.gov./cia/publications/factbook/geos/is.html CIA World Factbook]
Image:Knesset in Jerusalem Israel.jpg|The Knesset building, Israel's parliament
Image:SupremeCourtIsrael ST 06.jpg|Frontal view of The Supreme Court building
Image:Governmentsquare.jpeg|"Government Campus" consisting of the office building of Prime Minister of Israel, the building of Israeli Foreign Affairs Ministry, Finance Ministry and Ministry of Interior
Palestinian claimsthumb|The [Orient House
formerly used by the Palestinian Authority]
The Palestinian National Authority
asserts that the capital of a future Palestinian state will be situated in East Jerusalem. According to the Oslo Agreements
the final status of Jerusalem should be determined by peaceful negotiation. The most notable "official" Palestinian
presence in the city is the Orient House
, which has been subject to strict monitoring by the Israeli authorities and since August 2001 has been occupied by the Israeli security services. The Palestinian flag has since been taken down from it.
The Palestinian National Authority also regards East Jerusalem as the provincial capital of its Jerusalem Governorate
Jerusalem is situated in coor , upon the southern spur of a plateau the eastern side of which slopes from 2,460 ft. above sea-level north of the Temple Mount
to 2,130 ft. at the southeastern extremity. The western hill is about 2,500 ft. high and slopes southeast from the Judean plateau.
Jerusalem is surrounded upon all sides by valleys, of which those on the north are less pronounced than those on the other three sides. The principal two valleys start northwest of the present city. The first runs eastward with a slight southerly bend (the present Wadi al-Joz), then, deflecting directly south, the Kidron
(Hebrew) Valley or Wadi Sitti Maryam (Arabic), divides the Mount of Olives
from the city. The second runs directly south on the western side of the city, turns eastward at its southeastern extremity, then runs directly east, and joins the first valley near Bir Ayyub ("Job's Well"). This valley is called the Valley of Hinnom
in Hebrew, and Wadi al-Rababi in Arabic.thumb|A view from [Mount Scopus
A third valley, commencing in the northwest where the Damascus Gate is now, ran south-southeasterly down to the Pool of Siloam
, and divided the lower part into two hills (the lower and the upper cities of Josephus). This is probably the later Tyropoeon ("Cheese-makers'") valley
. A fourth valley led from the western hill (near the present Jaffa Gate) over to the Temple area: it is represented in modern Jerusalem by David Street. A fifth cut the eastern hill into a northern and a southern part. Later Jerusalem was thus built upon four spurs. Today, neighboring towns are Bethlehem
and Beit Jala
at the southern city border, Abu Dis
and Ma'ale Adummim
to the East, Mevaseret Zion
to the West, Giv'at Ze'ev
to the North.
seealso|List of places in
Climate and environmentthumb|180px|February 2003 in Jerusalem
Jerusalem is situated at a relatively high altitude and experiences cold, wet winters with an average of 9 °C. The average annual precipitation is about 600 mm
(24 inches). Snowfalls, when they occur, are generally mild. Summers in Jerusalem are dry and often hot with temperatures averaging around 26 °C.
There is almost no industrial pollution in Jerusalem. Most pollutants are the product of heavy bus and personal vehicle traffic, especially along the arterial roads, and a by-product from heavy building. With this exception, air pollution is low.
The building code in Jerusalem prescribes that all buildings should be covered with native Jerusalem stone
[http://www.biu.ac.il/js/rennert/history_12.html The British Mandate from "Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City". Online course material from the Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel]
Although this increases building costs somewhat, it gives the city a very distinct look in comparison with other cities. Since the 1950s only a small number of buildings have been constructed in Jerusalem which do not conform to this code.
With the exception of the central plateau, many neighborhoods are divided by deep valleys, which are the natural green areas of the city. To the west of the city is the larger Jerusalem Forest
. Especially in open spaces near major roads, large parks were developed. To the east and the southeast of the Old City, where little grows without constant irrigation, promenades with parks were developed, which allow walkers to enjoy the view of the Old City, the Judean Desert, the irrigated vegetation, and - depending on location and weather conditions - the Dead Sea
People and culture
main|Demographics of thumb|250px|right|Ben Yehuda Streetthumb|250px|right|Mahane Yehuda Marketthumb|250px|right|Nahlaot Neighborhoodthumb|250px|right|Mishkenot Shaananim
When it first appears in historical records, Jerusalem was inhabited by a Canaanite
tribe. The Bible specifies them as the Jebusite
s, and says they ruled it until its conquest by King David
. After taking control of the city from the Canaanites, Jews formed the majority of the population for 1,200 years, until Jerusalem's destruction by Rome in the second century. Subsequent demographic changes are uncertain, although the city's population probably attained a Muslim majority by the time of the Crusades
. An official 16th century survey confirms that the city was largely Muslim. By 1844, Jews were once again the largest single ethnic group in the city and formed a majority by the late 19th century.
| url = http://www.mideastweb.org/palpop.htm
| title = The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948
| publisher = MidEastWeb.org
| year = 2005
| accessdate = October 4, 2006
As of May 24, 2006, Jerusalem's population is 724,000 (about 10% of the total population of Israel), of which 65.0% were Jews (approx. one-quarter of whom live in East Jerusalem
), 32.0% Muslim (almost all of whom live in East Jerusalem
) and 2% Christian. 35% of the city's population were children under age of 15. In 2005, the city had 18,600 newborns.
It should be noted that these official Israeli statistics refer to the expanded Israel municipality of Jerusalem. This includes not only the area of the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities, but also outlying Palestinian villages and neighbourhoods to the north-east of the city which were not part of the Jordanian municipality of East Jerusalem prior to 1967. A reasonable assumption is that all or part of these may not remain part of Jerusalem when its final status is established, but rather be returned to the West Bank as part of the Palestinian state. Some of these villages and neighbourhoods have already been returned to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier, although formally, their legal status has not been reverted.
Jerusalem houses many museums. The Israel Museum is one of the most famous. It
includes a large collection of art and archaeological artifacts. In the "Shrine of the Book", it exhibits the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Rockefeller Museum is the city's specific museum for archeology. The Ticho House exhibits art collections in an historical building. The Tower of David Museum is the main municipal museum; it includes models of the city and changing exhibits. Yad Vashem is the national Holocaust museum and monument. The Islamic Museum in the Old City and Islamic Art Museum near the President's house both have collections of Islamic art, holy scripts and artifacts.
The city has two professional orchestras, the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra-IBA and the Israel Camerata Jerusalem. In walking distance from the old city (southwest) is a cluster of cultural institutions. Theaters include the Khan Theater, Jerar Bachar, Beit Shmuel, Beit Agron and Jerusalem's Theatre. The Jerusalem Cinematheque is the venue in Jerusalem to watch non-commercial movies. It houses annually an international film festival and a Jewish film festival. In the Sultan Pool open air concerts are held, by Israeli artists and guests from abroad. The Jerusalem Music Center in Mishkenot Sha’ananim hosts chamber music concerts and workshops.
Adjacent to the Hebrew University’s Givat Ram campus are the Jerusalem Botanical Gardens. The Givat Ram campus is also the home to the Jewish National and University Library, itself home to the Albert Einstein archives and the Eran Laor Cartographic Collection.
The Synagogue of the Hadassah Medical Center is home to the Marc Chagall stained glass windows depicting the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Another theater, the Palestinian National Theatre is located next to Orient House.
The main cultural event of the year is the Israel Festival, with international and local street performances and repertory and alternative musicians and theater groups.
Image:Israel - Jerusalem - Shrine of the Book.jpg|Shrine of the Book
Image:Jerusalem-TowerOfDavid 004.jpg|The David Tower Museum
Image:HUJI2.jpg|Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram campus
Image:Khanjerusalem.jpeg|The Khan Theater in Jerusalem
Image:Jerusalem-MulinoMontefiori.jpg|Old gristmill in Mishkenot Sha’ananim
Image:Eurovisionisrael.jpeg|The hall of Binyanei Hauma hosted the Eurovision in 1979 and 1999
Image:Bear-standing-zoo-jerusalem.jpg|The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Heavy industry is discouraged in Jerusalem, leaving Jerusalem's economy as mainly service-based. While Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial capital, almost half of Jerusalem's residents work in government, public service, or tourism, although there has been an increasing number of high-technology start-ups in the city, as well.
The civilian labor force of Jerusalem was 183,000 (48.1%) out of 384,000 persons ages 15+. This is low in comparison to Tel Aviv and Haifa, 58.0% and 52.4% respectively. This reflects a higher percentage of one income households, especially among the Arab and Haredi populations. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, the average wage for a Jerusalem worker was NIS 5,568 in 2000. In Tel Aviv the income was 17.8% higher and in Haifa 14.1% higher. Income in Jerusalem was on average lower both for wage-earners and self-employed people.
The population of Jerusalem is poorer in comparison to Israeli national figures. This is also often attributed to large Arab and Haredi population segments. In 1995 25% of the city population and 37% of its children lived below poverty level, as compared to 17% of all Israelis and 23% of Israeli children.
150px|thumb|Coffee shop in Jerusalem's centre
thumb|150px|Nightlife in Jerusalem centre
Jerusalem is home to many attractions. Some of these include:
*The Old City of Jerusalem
*Jerusalem Centre around Jaffa and Ben Yehuda streets
*The various Museums
*The Biblical Zoo
*The City of David
*Quaint neighbourhoods such as Mishkenot Sha’ananim, Ein Kerem, Mea Shearim and German Colony
*Main nightlife in Jerusalem around the Russian Compound, Nachalat Shivaa, ShlomZion and Talpiot
*The Haas Promenade
See also .
Begin Boulevard is western Jerusalem's inner city expressway. It runs south to north from Manahat (Malha) to Ramot, where it merges into the Modi'in-Tel Aviv highway (Highway 443). Other major north-south arteries include: the Talpiot-Atarot route (Route 60), which traverses the city center and roughly separates East and West Jerusalem; and Herzl Boulevard, which begins at the northern entrance of the city and continues south via Mount Herzl and the Yad VaShem Holocaust memorial. It then merges into additional routes that lead to the southwestern quarters. The Golomb-Herzog-Ben-Zvi route also links the southern quarters with the city center.
Running east through the city center, Jaffa Road connects the Jaffa Gate of the Old City as well as East Jerusalem with the northwestern city entrance and Highway 1. Yigal Yadin Boulevard serves as a northern bypass of the city center, and links Ma'ale Adummim and the northeastern neighborhoods to Begin Boulevard near Ramot.
A future ring-road would include Yadin and Begin boulevards as the respective north and west sectors.
[http://cache5.imente.com/vcache.cgi?cc=&clau=11377594941118393427&plt=17HQiTECha&m=1&catg=1115196882 Running rings around us by Nathan Burstein (Jerusalem Post, January 19, 2006)]
thumb|right|300px|[Jerusalem Central Bus Station]
Jerusalem Central Bus Station is Jerusalem's intercity bus station. It is served mainly by Egged buses and by a single joint Egged - Dan bus line, while Superbus and Margalit, serving Modi'in, have their stops close by. City buses in the Jewish and Israeli areas are run by Egged, which runs close to 100 bus lines throughout the city and its suburbs.
Palestinian-run buses serve the city's Arab neighborhoods as well as Palestinian towns in the West Bank and Israeli Arab towns. This system is based out of the East Jerusalem Central Bus Station on Sultan Suleiman Street, though buses also leave from outside the Damascus Gate of the Old City.
The Egged and Palestinian city bus networks are almost completely separated. There are only a handful of bus stops that both companies serve. Arab residents of Jerusalem do use Egged buses frequently, but Jewish residents rarely use the Palestinian buses, in part because while Arabs do regularly visit the Israeli center of town, Jews do not frequently come to the Arab parts of the city.
Israel Railways operates train service to Southern Jerusalem with 2 stops: Jerusalem Malha near the Malha Mall and the Biblical Zoo. Very few trains stop at the latter stop. The line was out of use for seven years because of deteriorating conditions and was restored on April 9 2005. Jerusalem Malha is a new station which replaces the historical Khan Station at Remez Square near the Old City. The train ride from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem takes about 80 minutes.
The existing rail line serving Jerusalem began operating in 1892. A brand new high-speed electrified rail link is currently under construction, which will run from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem via Ben Gurion Airport and terminate at a new underground station - Binyanei HaUmah, located between the Jerusalem Central Bus Station and the International Convention Centre. It is anticipated that the new rail link will open in 2011, with an expected transit time from Tel Aviv of less than 30 minutes.
thumb|220px|Wall painting on Jaffa Road of the future light rail network in Jerusalem
A local light rail network is being planned and has already been partially constructed. The first line is at the height of its construction and is slated to begin operating from Pisgat Ze'ev in the northeast through the French Hill and through Yaffo Street to the Central Bus Station and the southwestern neighborhoods around 2008.
[http://www.rakevetkala-jerusalem.org.il/images/Eng_brochure.pdf Jerusalem Light Rail – Mass Transit System (PDF)] Unusually, for a city with a population of over 700,000, Jerusalem never had a previous first generation tramway network, although, before the war, one was proposed but was cancelled for political reasons.
Atarot Airport is Jerusalem's airport, but was closed to civilian traffic in 2000 due to security concerns arising from the Al-Aqsa Intifada,
[http://www.jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=6648 An Intifada Casualty Named Atarot Larry Derfner, The Jewish Journal, 23 March 2001] and was later placed under IDF control during 2001. [http://www.kokhavivpublications.com/2001/israel/jul/27/0107272234s.html Jerusalem's Atarot Airport handed over to the IDF Zohar Blumenkrant, Ha'aretz, 27 July 2001] Ben Gurion International Airport, 40 km northwest of the city, serves as the primary international air transport hub for both Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.
The most popular sport in Jerusalem is football (soccer). The city has two major teams, the yellow Beitar Jerusalem FC and the red Hapoel Jerusalem FC. Beitar plays in the Premier League, was 4 times Israeli champion (1986, 1993, 1997 and 1998) and has won the national cup 5 times. Hapoel currently plays in the Leumit or second league and has won one national cup, in 1973. In basketball, however, Hapoel Jerusalem has the upperhand. In a league dominated by Maccabi Tel Aviv it never won a championship, yet twice won the Israeli Cup, in 1996 and 1997. In 2004 it won the European ULEB Cup.
A marathon is held in the streets of Jerusalem every year and the popular Jerusalem hike starts west of the city and ends in its streets. The municipality, universities, schools, clubs and businesses operate over a thousand sport facilities throughout the city. The largest sports facility is the Teddy Kollek Stadium in Malha, a football stadium with 21,000 seats. Major basketball games are held at the Strauss Arena.
* Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* Al-Quds University
* Jerusalem College of Technology
* Bezalel Academy of Art and Design
* Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance
* Mir yeshiva
* Ohr Somayach, Jerusalem
* Brisk yeshiva
* Brigham Young University Jerusalem Center
* http://184.108.40.206/opt/xampp/custodia/tsancta/00sbf.php Studium Biblicum Franciscanum
* http://www.ebaf.edu/ École Biblique et Archéologique Française
* Israel Museum
* Rockefeller Museum
* Yad Vashem
* Ticho House
* http://220.127.116.11/www1/ofm/sbf/SBFmuse.html The Archaeological Museum of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum
* http://www.blmj.org/ The Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem
* http://www.towerofdavid.org.il/ The Tower Of David Museum
* http://www.time-elevator-jerusalem.co.il The Time Elevator
Born in Jerusalem
*Saint Angelus (Catholic saint)
*Fathi Arafat (physician)
*Suha Arafat (public figure)
*Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (rabbi)
*Mili Avital (actress)
*Yosef Avni (activist)
*Chaim Joseph David Azulai (rabbi, scholar)
*Yossi Banai (performer)
*Mustafa Barghouti (politician)
*Elisha Ben Abuyah (heretic)
*Amit Ben-Shushan (football player)
*Aviram Bruchyan (football player)
*Mordechai Eliyahu (rabbi)
*Saeb Erekat (politician)
*Yuval Gabay (drummer)
*Yehoram Gaon (performer)
*Eliezer Goldberg (judge)
*David Grossman (author)
*Eran Groumi (swimmer)
*Mordechai Gur "Motta" (general)
*Michael Halika (swimmer)
*Tzahi Hanegbi (politician)
*Amira Hass (journalist)
*Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (commander)
*Amin al-Husayni (public figure)
*Eliahu Inbal (orchestral conductor)
*Flavius Josephus (historian)
*Yousef Al-Khalidi (politician)
*George Khoury (murder victim)
*Amos Kollek (film director)
*Itzik Kornfine (football goalkeeper)
*Moshe Levinger (rabbi, activist)
*Isaac Luria (rabbi, scholar)
*Raphael Maklouf (sculptor)
*Uri Malmilian (football player)
*Yoav Meiri (swimmer)
*Yossi Mizrahi (goalkeeper)
*Dorrit Moussaieff (first lady)
*Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman)
*Nathan (son of David) (prince)
*Solomon (King of Israel)
*Yitzhak Navon (president)
*Sari Nusseibeh (academic)
*Shaike Ofir (actor)
*Eli Ohana (football player)
*Amos Oz (author)
*Nehemiah Persoff (actor)
*Natalie Portman (actress)
*Ibn Qudamah (scholar)
*Yitzhak Rabin (prime-minister)
*Reuven Rivlin (politician)
*Edward Said (literary theorist)
*Sirhan Sirhan (assassin)
*Eliezer Waldenberg (rabbi)
*Ayelet Waldman (author)
*William of Tyre (archbishop)
*Yigael Yadin (archeologist)
*A. B. Yehoshua (novelist)
*Eli Yishai (politician)
*Munib Younan (bishop)
*Nurit Zarchi (actress)
*Nissim Zeev (politician)
*Rehavam Zeevi (politician)
* New York City, USA (1993)
* Toledo, Spain
* Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day)
* East Jerusalem
* Eurovision Song Contest 1979 and Eurovision Song Contest 1999
* Jerusalem syndrome
* List of holy cities
* Old City
External reference and links
*http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_main/defaultnew.asp?lng=2 Official website of the Municipality of Jerusalem
* http://www.jlm.israel.net/ Jerusalem Art, Music and Culture Events updated daily
* http://www.gojerusalem.com/ "Go Jerusalem" Tourism Portal
* http://www.imj.org.il/ Israel Museum
* http://www.yadvashem.org/ Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial
* http://www.writingtogod.com/ Placing notes between the stones of the Western Wall
* http://www.pnt-pal.org/index.php Palestinian National Theatre
* http://haqaonline.lightuponlight.com/pg/thumbnails.php?album=19 Pictures of the Mosques in Jerusalem
* http://www.jerusalem-archives.org/index1.html Jerusalem archives, historical photographs of Jerusalem focusing mainly on the experience of the Jews.
* Portal of http://www.jerusalemshots.com/en Jerusalem Photos
* http://www.igor-schestkow.de/de/fotos/thumbs.php?c=05jerusalem Jerusalem Photos by Igor Schestow
* http://www.picturesofislam.com/dome.html Pictures Dome of Rock
* http://www.muslimphotos.net/gallery/thumbnails-7.html muslimphotos.net: Pictures of Jerusalem
* http://www.rahatt.com/panorama.php 16X zoomable panoramic view of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives
*http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_sys/map2000_eng/first1.asp Clickable street map of Jerusalem
*http://www.usm.maine.edu/~maps/exhibit1/ University of Maine Historical Map Collection, features European, Arab, and Jewish maps of the city dating back over 600 years. Highlights the role of Jerusalem in the history of map-making.
*http://maps-of-jerusalem.huji.ac.il/ Ancient maps of Jerusalem The Eran Laor Cartographic Collection of The Jewish National and University Library & The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
*http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/1631/madaba_map.html The Madaba Map is a mosaic is part of a mosaic on the floor of a church built in the town of Madaba, in what is present-day Jordan, in the 6th century. Jerusalem is depicted in the map and is one of the few parts that are undamaged.
*http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Jerusalem,+Israel&ie=UTF8&t=k&om=1&ll=31.778088,35.22294&spn=0.039255,0.079308 Jerusalem on google maps View Jerusalem and surrounding area via satellite images & maps
Status of the city
*http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/palestine/ch12.pdf UN document on the question of Palestine and the United Nations on the Status of Jerusalem
*http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/1967_and_now.stm Jerusalem before 1967 and now BBC site showing two maps with a brief commentary on the status of Jerusalem for each.
*http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1980_1989/Basic%20Law-%20Jerusalem-%20Capital%20of%20Israel Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel, Government of Israel, the Israeli law making Jerusalem the capital of Israel.
*http://www.pna.gov.ps/Jerusalem/index.asp Palestinian position on Jerusalem from the Palestinian National Authority
*http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Peace/jerutoc.html Jewish Position on Jerusalem
*http://www.dinur.org/resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryID=562&rsid=478 Resources > Jerusalem The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
*http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Jerusalem_Jebusites.html/ Ancient Jerusalem (Jebusites) - The History of the Ancient Near East
*http://www.zionism-israel.com/his/Jerusalem_history.htm Importance of Jerusalem in Jewish and Israeli history
* http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/jerusalem/ History Channel site on the history of Jerusalem
*http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/jeruhistoc.html Articles on the history of Jerusalem from the Jewish Virtual Library
*http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001/israel_and_the_palestinians/issues/1682594.stm BBC article on Jerusalem
*http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/JPArticle/Printer&cid=1123640629316&p=1006953079845 Shards of evidence The Jerusalem Post, August 11 2005
*http://www.world-religion.org/articles/j/j1855.php Jerusalem in the Qur'an
*http://www.mythsandfacts.com/NOQ_OnlineEdition/Chapter3/jerusalem1.htm One Nation’s Capital throughout History
*http://koti.phnet.fi/petripaavola/ModelofJerusalem.html Pictures from model of ancient Jerusalem
News and media
* http://www.israelnationalnews.com Israel National News
* http://www.jpost.com The Jerusalem Post, oldest and largest Israeli daily newspaper in English, previously the Palestine Post
* http://www.jmcc.org/ Jerusalem Media and Communications Centre, group of Palestinian reporters with daily news reports from East Jerusalem
* http://www.themedialine.org The MediaLine
* http://www.alquds.edu/index.php Al Quds Arab University of Jerusalem
* http://www.huji.ac.il/huji/eng/ Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* Cheshin, Amir S.; Bill Hutman and Avi Melamed (1999). Separate and Unequal: the Inside Story of Israeli Rule in East Jerusalem. Harvard University Press.
* Wasserstein, Bernard (2002). Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09730-1.
* Cline, Eric (2004). Jerusalem Besieged : From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11313-5.
* Collins, Larry, and La Pierre, Dominique (1988) O Jerusalem!, Simon and Shuster, N.Y. ISBN 0-671-66241-4
*Köchler, Hans (1981). The Legal Aspects of the Palestine Problem with Special Regard to the Question of Jerusalem. Vienna: Braumüller. ISBN 3-7003-0278-9
Category:Capitals in Asia
Category:Orthodox Jewish communities
Category:Cities in Israel
tl:Lungsod ng Jerusalem