Jesus, Jesus Is
, The Big Lebowski
, User:JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS JESUS
, Talk:Jesus/Historical Jesus
, Josephus on Jesus
, Society of Jesus
, Tacitus on Jesus
, Jesus College
, Jesus Prayer
(8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD
[Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, 54, 56; Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, p. 71; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, Doubleday, 1991-, vol. 1:214; E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin Books, 1993, pp. 10-11, and Ben Witherington III, "Primary Sources," Christian History 17 (1998) No. 3:12-20.]
also known as Jesus of Nazareth
, is the central figure of Christianity
. The name "Jesus" is an Anglicization
of the Greek Iesous
, itself a transliteration of the Hebrew Jeshua
, meaning "YHWH
He is commonly referred to as Jesus Christ
, where "Christ
" is a title derived from the Greek christos
, meaning "Anointed One", which corresponds to the Hebrew
The main sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical Gospels
of the New Testament
, and John
. Most scholars in the fields of history
and biblical studies
agree that Jesus was a Jew
ish teacher from Galilee
, who was regarded as a healer
, was baptized by John the Baptist
, and was crucified
on orders of the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate
under the accusation of sedition
against the Roman Empire
[Raymond E. Brown, The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave (New York: Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library 1994), p. 964; D. A. Carson, et al., p. 50-56; Shaye J.D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Westminster Press, 1987, p. 78, 93, 105, 108; John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperCollins, 1991, p. xi-xiii; Michael Grant, p. 34-35, 78, 166, 200; Paula Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred A. Knopf, 1999, p. 6-7, 105-110, 232-234, 266; John P. Meier, vol. 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726; E.P. Sanders, pp. 12-13; Geza Vermes, Jesus the Jew (Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1973), p. 37.; Paul L. Maier, In the Fullness of Time, Kregel, 1991, pp. 1, 99, 121, 171; N. T. Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions, HarperCollins, 1998, pp. 32, 83, 100-102, 222; Ben Witherington III, pp. 12-20.] [Though many historians may have certain reservations about the use of the Gospels for writing history, "even the most hesitant, however, will concede that we are probably on safe historical footing" concerning certain basic facts about the life of Jesus; Jo Ann H. Moran Cruz and Richard Gerberding, Medieval Worlds: An Introduction to European History Houghton Mifflin Company 2004, pp. 44-45]
A small minority of scholars and authors question the historical existence of Jesus
, with some arguing for a completely mythological Jesus
[Thomas L. Thompson The Messiah Myth: The Near Eastern Roots of Jesus and David (Jonathan Cape, Publisher, 2006); Bruno Bauer; Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy. The Jesus Mysteries: Was the 'Original Jesus' a Pagan God? London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1999, pp. 133, 158; Michael Martin, The Case Against Christianity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 36-72; John Mackinnon Robertson; G.A. Wells. The Jesus Legend, Chicago: Open Court, 1996, p xii.] [cite news | first=Rahul | last=Kanakia | coauthors= | title=Jesus Never Lived, Speaker Says | date=May 31, 2006 | publisher= | url =http://daily.stanford.edu/article/2006/5/31/jesusNeverLivedSpeakerSays | work =The Stanford Daily | pages = | accessdate = 2006-11-11 | language = ]
Christian views of Jesus (see Christology
) center on the belief that Jesus is the Messiah as promised in the Old Testament and that he was resurrected
after he died on a cross. Christians typically believe Jesus is the Son of God
, and that he was sent by God to provide salvation
and reconciliation with God by atoning
for the sin
s of humanity by his death. Trinitarian
Christians (the majority) believe that Jesus is God incarnate
, while Nontrinitarian
Christians profess various other interpretations regarding his divinity
. Other common Christian beliefs include his Virgin Birth
, fulfillment of biblical prophecy
, and future Second Coming
seealso | Census of Quirinius
The most detailed accounts of Jesus' birth are contained in the Gospel of Matthew
(probably written between 65 and 90 AD/CE)
[Darrell L. Bock, Jesus According to Scripture, pp. 29-30, gives a c. 60-70 date; L. Michael White, From Jesus to Christianity, p. 244, gives c. 80-90.]
and the Gospel of Luke
(probably written between 65 and 100 AD/CE).
[Bock, ibid., p. 38, gives c. 62-70; White, ibid., p. 252, gives c. 90-100.]
There is considerable debate about the details of Jesus' birth among even Christian scholars, and few scholars claim to know precisely either the year or the date of his birth or of his death.
The nativity accounts in Matthew and Luke do not mention a date or time of year for the birth of Jesus. In Western Christianity, it has been traditionally celebrated in the liturgical
season of Christmastide
on 25 December, a date that can be traced as early as 330 among Roman Christians. Before then, and still today in Eastern Christianity
, Jesus' birth was generally celebrated on January 6
as part of the feast of Theophany
[ Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity Grand Rapids, Mich.; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003, 1:454–55]
also known as Epiphany
, which commemorated not only Jesus' birth but also his baptism
in the Jordan River
and possibly additional events in Jesus' life. Many scholars note that the event described in Luke of the shepherds' activities suggest a spring or summer date for Jesus' birth.
[ Porterm J. R. Jesus Christ: The Jesus of History, the Christ of Faith. Oxford University Press, 1999. Pg. 70 ISBN 0-19-521429-3]
Scholars speculate that the date of the celebration was moved by the Roman Catholic Church in an attempt to replace the Roman festival of Saturnalia
(or more specifically, the birthday of the pagan
god Sol Invictus
In the 248th year during the Diocletian Era
(based on Diocletian's ascension to the Roman throne), Dionysius Exiguus
attempted to pinpoint the number of years since Jesus' birth, arriving at a figure of 753 years after the founding of Rome
. Dionysius then set Jesus' birth as being December 25 1 ACN
(for "Ante Christum Natum", or "before the birth of Christ"), and assigned AD 1 to the following year — thereby establishing the system of numbering years from the birth of Jesus: Anno Domini
(which translates as "in the year of our Lord
"). This system made the then current year 532, and almost two centuries later it won acceptance and became the established calendar in Western civilization due to its further championing by the Venerable Bede
However, based on a lunar eclipse
reports shortly before the death of Herod the Great
(who plays a major role in Matthew's account), as well as a more accurate understanding of the succession of Roman Emperors, Jesus' birth would have been some time during or before the year 4 BC/BCE. Having fewer sources and being further removed in time from the authors of the New Testament
, establishing a reliable birth date now is particularly difficult. Alternatively, based on the idea that a Jupiter-Saturn conjunction was the "star" the Wise Men followed, the birth could be as early as 7BC/BCE.
[http://astrology.about.com/od/celebrityfamous/a/jesusbirth_2.htm "Speculations on Christ's Birth" About: Astrology]
The Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Matthew both place Jesus' birth under the reign of Herod the Great
. Luke similarly describes the events as occurring during the governorship of Quirinius
, and involving the first census
of the provinces of Syria
. Josephus places the governorship of Quirinius, and a census, in 6 AD/CE, long after the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC/BCE (which Luke refers to in Acts 5:37). Josephus also stated that Quirinius conducted a census in the thirty-seventh year since the Battle of Actium
, which places the event at 6 AD/CE. Hence debate has centered over whether or not the sources can be reconciled by asserting a prior governorship of Quirinius in Syria, or if an earlier census was conducted, and if not then which source to consider in error.
The exact date of Jesus' death is also unclear. Many scholars hold that the Gospel of John
depicts the crucifixion just before the Passover
festival on Friday 14 Nisan
, called the Quartodeciman
, whereas the synoptic gospels
(except for niv|Mark|14:2|Mark ) describe the Last Supper
, immediately before Jesus' arrest, as the Passover meal on Friday 15 Nisan; however, a number of scholars hold that the synoptic account is harmonious with the account in John.
[See Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John, Revised, pp. 284-295, for a discussion of several alternate theories with references.]
Further, the Jews followed a lunisolar calendar
with phases of the moon as dates, complicating calculations of any exact date in a solar calendar. According to John P. Meier
's A Marginal Jew
, allowing for the time of the procuratorship
of Pontius Pilate
and the dates of the Passover in those years, his death can be placed most probably on April 7
AD/CE or April 3
Life and teachings, as told in the Gospels
main|New Testament view on Jesus'
As few of the details of Jesus' life can be independently verified, it is difficult to gauge the historical accuracy of the Biblical
accounts. The four canonical gospel
s are the main sources of information for the traditional Christian narrative of Jesus' life.
Genealogy and family
main|Genealogy of thumb|left|165px|Jesus and Mary: [Black Madonna of Częstochowa
Of the four gospels, only Matthew and Luke give accounts of Jesus' genealogy. Matthew's account gives the male line through his legal father Joseph
; Luke either gives the male line or, according to another interpretation, the line through Jesus' mother, Mary
[niv|Matthew|1:2-16|Matt ; niv|Luke|3:23-38|Luke ]
Both accounts trace his line back to King David
and from there to Abraham
. These lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ between David and Joseph. Matthew starts with Solomon
and proceeds through the kings of Judah
to the last king, Jeconiah
. After Jeconiah, the line of kings terminated when Babylon conquered Judah
. Thus, Matthew shows that Jesus is the legal heir to the throne of Israel. Luke's genealogy is longer than Matthew's; it goes back to Adam
and provides more names between David and Jesus.
Joseph appears only in descriptions of Jesus' childhood. With Jesus commending Mary
into the care of the beloved disciple
during his crucifixion (niv|John|19:25-27|John ), it is likely that he had died by the time of Jesus' ministry.
[ Easton, Matthew Gallego.http://www.christiananswers.net/dictionary/joseph-fosterfatherofjesus.html Joseph (the foster father of Jesus Christ). Accessed June 26, 2006]
The New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, and Galatians tell of Jesus' relatives, including possible brothers and sisters.
[niv|Matthew|13:55-56|Matthew , niv|Mark|6:3|Mark , and niv|Galatians|1:19|Galatians ]
The Greek word adelphos
in these verses, often translated as brother
, can refer to any familial relation, and most Catholics and Eastern Orthodox translate the word as kinsman
in this context (see Perpetual virginity of Mary
An account of the childhood of Mary is given in the mid-second century non-canonical Protoevangelium of James
Nativity and early life
main|Annunciation|Nativity of Jesus|Child thumb|left|Adoration of the Shepherds, [Gerard van Honthorst
, 17th c.]
According to Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem
of Judea to Mary
, a virgin
, by a miracle
of the Holy Spirit
. The Gospel of Luke
gives an account of the angel Gabriel
visiting Mary to tell her that she was chosen to bear the Son of God
(niv|Luke|1:26-38|Luke ). According to Luke, an order of Caesar Augustus
forced Mary and Joseph to leave their homes in Nazareth
and come to the home of Joseph's ancestors, the house of David
, for the Census of Quirinius
. After Jesus' birth, the couple was forced to use a manger
in place of a crib because there was no room for them in the town's inn
(niv|Luke|2:1-7|Luke ). According to Luke, an angel
announced Jesus' birth to shepherds who came to see the newborn child and subsequently publicized what they had witnessed throughout the area (see The First Noël
). Matthew also tells of the "Wise Men
" or "Magi
" who brought gifts to the infant Jesus after following a star which they believed was a sign that the Messiah
, or King of the Jews
, had been born (niv|Matthew|2:1-12|Matthew ), and of the flight to Egypt
after Jesus' birth in order to escape Herod's Massacre of the Innocents
Jesus' childhood home is stated in the Bible to have been the town of Nazareth
. According to Luke, Joseph and Mary lived in Nazareth before Jesus' birth and returned there afterwards. According to Matthew, the family remained in Egypt until Herod's death, whereupon they moved to Nazareth in order to avoid living under the authority of Herod's son and successor Archelaus
Aside from the flight to Egypt
and a short trip to Tyre
, all other events in the Gospels are set in ancient Israel
[For Egypt: niv|Matthew|2:13-23|Matt ; For Tyre and sometimes Sidon:niv|Matthew|15:21-28|Matt and niv|Mark|7:24-30|Mark ]
According to Luke ) Jesus was "about thirty years of age" when he was baptized. The only event mentioned between Jesus' infancy and baptism in any of the canonical Gospels is Luke's Finding in the Temple
(niv|Luke|2:41-52|Luke ). In Mark Jesus is called a carpenter ), and in Matthew a carpenter's son ), suggesting that Jesus spent some of the intervening time practising carpentry with his father.
Baptism and temptation
main|Baptism of Jesus|Temptation of thumb|right|175px|Temptation of Christ, [Ary Scheffer
, 19th c.]
The Gospel of Mark
begins with the Baptism of Jesus
by John the Baptist
, which Biblical scholars describe as the beginning of Jesus' public ministry. According to Mark, Jesus came to the Jordan River
where John the Baptist had been preaching and baptizing people in the crowd. Matthew
adds to the account by describing an attempt by John to decline Jesus' request for baptism, saying that it is Jesus who should baptize John. Jesus insisted however, claiming that baptism was necessary to "fulfill all righteousness." (niv|Matthew|3:15|Matthew ). After Jesus had been baptized and rose from the water, Mark states Jesus "saw the heavens parting and the Spirit descending upon Him like a dove. Then a voice came from heaven saying: ‘You are My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.’" (nkjv|Mark|1:10-11|Mark ).
Following his baptism, according to Matthew, Jesus was led into the desert by God where he fasted
for forty days and forty nights. During this time, the devil
appeared to him and tempted Jesus to demonstrate his supernatural
powers as proof of being the Son of God
, although each temptation was refused by Jesus with a quote of scripture
from the Book of Deuteronomy
. In all, he was tempted three times. The Gospels state that having failed, the devil departed and angel
s came and brought nourishment to Jesus (niv|Matthew|4:1-11|Matthew ).
main|Ministry of Jesus|Sermon on the Mount|Sermon on the Plain|Twelve Apostles|Transfiguration of left|thumb|250px|Sermon on the Mount, [Carl Heinrich Bloch
, 19th c.]
The Gospels state that Jesus, as Messiah
, was sent to "give his life as a ransom for many" and "preach the good news of the Kingdom of , , . Over the course of his ministry, Jesus is said to have performed various miracles
, including healings, exorcism
s, walking on water
, turning water into wine
, and raising several people, such as Lazarus
, from the dead (niv|John|11:1–44|John ).thumb|225px|right|Judæa and Galilee at the time of Jesus
The Gospel of John describes three different passover
feasts over the course of Jesus' ministry. This implies that Jesus preached for a period of three years, although some interpretations of the Synoptic Gospels
suggest a span of only one year. The focus of his ministry was toward his closest adherents, the Twelve Apostles
, though many of his followers were considered disciples
. Jesus led what many believe to have been an apocalyptic
following. He preached that the end of the current world
would come unexpectedly; as such, he called on his followers to be ever alert and faithful.
At the height of his ministry, Jesus attracted huge crowds numbering in the thousands, primarily in the areas of Galilee
and Perea (in modern-day Israel
respectively). Some of Jesus' most famous teachings come from the Sermon on the Mount
, which contained the Beatitudes
and the Lord's Prayer
. Jesus often employed parables
, such as the Prodigal Son
, and the Parable of the Sower
. His teachings centered around unconditional self-sacrificing God-like love
for God and for all people. During his sermons, he preached about service and humility, the forgiveness of sin, faith, turning the other cheek
, love for one's enemies
as well as friends, and the need to follow the spirit of the law
in addition to the letter.
[Sermon on the Mount: niv|Matthew|5-7|Matt ; Prodigal Son: niv|Luke|15:11-32|Luke ; Parable of the Sower: niv|Matthew|13:1-9|Matt ; Agape: niv|Matthew|22:34-40|Matt .]
Jesus often met with society's outcasts, such as the publicani
(Imperial tax collectors who were despised for extorting money), including the apostle Matthew
; when the Pharisees
objected to meeting with sinners rather than the righteous, Jesus replied that it was the sick who need a physician, not the healthy (niv|Matthew|9:9-13|Matthew ). According to Luke and John, Jesus also made efforts to extend his ministry to the Samaritans
, who followed a different form
of the Israelite religion. This is reflected in his preaching to the Samaritans of Sychar
, resulting in their conversion (niv|John|4:1-42|John ).
Arrest, trial, and death
main|Jesus and the Money Changers|Last Supper|Arrest of Jesus|Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus|Death of thumb|right|175px|Antonio Ciseri, 19th c.: Pontius Pilate presents a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to onlookers: a very popular motif in Christian art.">[Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!)
, Antonio Ciseri
, 19th c.: Pontius Pilate presents a scourge
d Jesus of Nazareth to onlookers: a very popular motif in Christian art.]
According to the Gospels, Jesus came with his followers to Jerusalem during the Passover festival where a large crowd came to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna
! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the King of Israel!"
[The crowd was quoting niv|Psalms|118:26|Psalms ; found in niv|John|12:13-16|John .]
Following his triumphal entry
, according to the synoptic gospels, Jesus created a disturbance at Herod's Temple
by overturning the tables of the moneychangers
operating there, claiming that they had made the Temple a "den of robbers." (niv|Mark|11:17|Mark ). Later that week, according to the synoptic gospels, Jesus celebrated the Passover meal
with his disciples, subsequently known as the Last Supper
in which he prophesied his future betrayal by one of his apostles and ultimate execution. In this ritual he took bread and wine in hand, saying: "this is my body which is given for you" and "this cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood," and instructed them to "do this in remembrance
of me" (niv|Luke|22:7-20|Luke ). Following the supper, Jesus and his disciples went to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane
While in the garden, Jesus was arrested
soldiers on the orders of the Sanhedrin
and the high priest, Caiaphas
[Cited later in niv|Matthew|26:65-67|Matt .]
The arrest took place clandestinely at night to avoid a riot, as Jesus was popular with the people at large (niv|Mark|14:2|Mark ). According to the synoptics, Judas Iscariot
, one of his apostles, betrayed Jesus by identifying him to the guards with a kiss. Another apostle used a sword to attack one of the captors, cutting off his ear, which, according to Luke, Jesus immediately healed.
[The apostle is identified as Simon Peter in niv|john|18:10|John ; the healing of the ear is found in niv|luke|22:51|Luke .]
Jesus rebuked the apostle, stating "all they that take the sword shall perish by the sword" (niv|Matthew|26:52|Matthew ). After his arrest, Jesus' apostles went into hiding.thumb|left|200px|Diego Velázquez, 17th c.">[Crucifixion
, Diego Velázquez
, 17th c.]During the Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus
, the high priests and elders asked Jesus, "Are you the Son of God
?", and upon his reply of "You say that I am", condemned Jesus for blasphemy
(niv|luke|22:70-71|Luke ). The high priests then turned him over to the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate
, based on an accusation of sedition
for claiming to be King of the Jews.
[niv|Matthew|27:11|Matt ; niv|Mark|15:2|Mark .]
While before Pilate, Jesus was questioned "Are you the king of the Jews?" to which he replied, "It is as you say." According to the Gospels, Pilate personally felt that Jesus was not guilty of any crime against the Romans, and since there was a custom at Passover for the Roman governor to free a prisoner (a custom not recorded outside the Gospels), Pilate offered the crowd a choice between Jesus of Nazareth and an insurrectionist named Barabbas
. The crowd chose to have Barabbas freed and Jesus crucified. Pilate washed his hands to display that he himself was innocent of the injustice of the decision (niv|Matthew|27:11-26|Matthew ).
According to all four Gospels, Jesus died before late afternoon. The wealthy Judean Joseph of Arimathea
, according to Mark and Luke a member of the Sanhedrin
, received Pilate's permission to take possession of Jesus' body, placing it in a tomb.
[niv|Mark|15:42-46|Mark ; niv|Luke|23:50-56|Luke .]
According to John, Joseph was joined in burying Jesus by Nicodemus
, who appears in other parts of John's gospel (niv|John|19:38-42|John ). The three Synoptic Gospels tell of an earthquake and of the darkening of the sky from twelve until three that afternoon.
Resurrection and Ascension thumb|right|175px|Christ en majesté, Resurrection of Jesus
">[Matthias Grünewald, 16th c.: Resurrection of Jesus
main|Harrowing of Hell|Resurrection of Jesus|Great Commission|Ascension|Second
According to the Gospels, Jesus was raised from the dead
on the third day after his crucifixion
[sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=Matthew ; niv|mark|16:9|Mark ; niv|luke|24:12-16|Luke ; niv|John|20:10-17|John ; niv|Acts|2:24|Acts ; niv|1Cor|6:14|1Cor ]
The Gospel of Matthew states that an angel appeared near the tomb of Jesus and announced his resurrection to the women who had arrived to anoint
the body. According to Luke it was two angels, and according to Mark it was a youth dressed in white. Mark states that on the morning of his resurrection, Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene
(niv|Mark|16:9|Mark ). John states that when Mary looked into the tomb, two angels asked her why she was crying; and as she turned round she initially failed to recognize Jesus until he spoke her name (niv|john|20:11-18|John ).
The Acts of the Apostles
state that Jesus appeared to various people in various places over the next forty days. Hours after his resurrection, he appeared to two travellers on the road to Emmaus
. To his assembled disciples he showed himself on the evening after his resurrection. Although his own ministry had been specifically to Jews, Jesus is said to have sent his apostles to the Gentiles with the Great Commission
to heaven while a cloud concealed him from their sight. According to Acts, Paul of Tarsus
also saw Jesus during his Road to Damascus
experience. Jesus promised to come again
to fulfill the remainder of Messianic prophecy
[Ministering to Israel: niv|Matthew|15:24|Matthew ; ascension: niv|Mark|16:19|Mark ; niv|Luke|24:51|Luke niv|Acts|1:6-11|Acts ; Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus: niv|Acts|9:1-19|Acts , ; ; Second coming: niv|Matthew|24:36-44|Matthew ]
Scholars use the historical method
to develop probable reconstructions of Jesus' life. This is to be distinguished from the Biblical Jesus
, which derives from a theological
reading of the Gospel texts. Some scholars dispute the historicity of Jesus
Historical and archaeological reconstructions of Jesus' day to day life
main|Historical Jesus|Cultural and historical background of
Secular historians generally describe Jesus as an itinerant preacher and leader of a religious movement within Judaism.
[Harrison, John B. and Richard E. Sullivan. A short history of Western civilization. New York: Knopf. 1975.]
Most scholars agree the Gospels were written shortly before or after the destruction of the Jewish Temple
in the year 70 by the Romans. Examining the New Testament account of Jesus in light of historical knowledge about the time when Jesus was purported to live, as well as historical knowledge about the time during which the New Testament was written, has led several scholars to reinterpret many elements of the New Testament accounts. Many have sought to reconstruct Jesus' life in terms of contemporaneous political, cultural, and religious currents in Israel, including differences between Galilee and Judea; between different sects such the Pharisees
[For a comparison of the Jesus movement to the Zealots, see S.G.F Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots: a study of the political factor in primitive Christianity, Manchester University Press (1967) ISBN 0-684-31010-4]
and in terms of conflicts among Jews in the context of Roman occupation.
Ties to religious groups
The Gospels record that Jesus was a Nazarene
, but the meaning of this word is vague.
[ For a general comparison of Jesus' teachings to other schools of first century Judaism, see John P. Meier, Companions and Competitors (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Volume 3) Anchor Bible, 2001. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.]
Some scholars assert that Jesus was himself a Pharisee.
[Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Talmud and other Jewish literature. Maccoby, Hyam Jesus the Pharisee, Scm Press, 2003. ISBN 0-334-02914-7; Falk, Harvey Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, Wipf & Stock Publishers (2003). ISBN 1-59244-313-3.]
In Jesus' day, the two main schools of thought among the Pharisees were the House of Hillel
and the House of Shammai
. Jesus' assertion of hypocrisy may have been directed against the stricter members of the House of Shammai, although he also agreed with their teachings on divorce (niv|Mark|10:1-12|Mark ).
[Neusner, Jacob A Rabbi Talks With Jesus, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7735-2046-5. Rabbi Neusner contends that Jesus' teachings were closer to the House of Shammai than the House of Hillel.]
Jesus also commented on the House of Hillel's teachings (Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a) concerning the greatest commandment
(niv|Mark|12:28-34|Mark ) and the Golden Rule
Other scholars assert that Jesus was an Essene, a sect of Judaism not mentioned in the New Testament
[Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Dead Sea Scrolls, especially the Teacher of Righteousness and Pierced Messiah. Eisenman, Robert James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Penguin (Non-Classics), 1998. ISBN 0-14-025773-X; Stegemann, Hartmut The Library of Qumran: On the Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist, and Jesus. Grand Rapids MI, 1998. See also Broshi, Magen, "What Jesus Learned from the Essenes," Biblical Archaeology Review, 30:1, pg. 32-37, 64. Magen notes similarities between Jesus' teachings on the virtue of poverty and divorce, and Essene teachings as related in Josephus' The Jewish Wars and in the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls, respectively.]
Still other scholars assert that Jesus led a new apocalyptic
sect, possibly related to John the Baptist
[The Gospel accounts show both John the Baptist and Jesus teaching repentance and the coming Kingdom of God. Some scholars have argued that Jesus was a failed apocalyptic prophet; see Schwietzer, Albert The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede, pgs. 370–371, 402. Scribner (1968), ISBN 0-02-089240-3; Ehrman, Bart Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press USA, 1999. ISBN 0-19-512474-X. Crossan, however, makes a distinction between John's apocalyptic ministry and Jesus' ethical ministry. See Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pgs. 305-344. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0-06-061659-8.]
which became Early Christianity
after the Great Commission
spread his teachings to the Gentiles
[This includes the belief that Jesus was the Messiah. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus: Messianic Prophecy Objections Baker Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8010-6423-6. Brown shows how the Christian concept of Messiah relates to ideas current in late Second Temple period Judaism. See also Klausner, Joseph, The Messianic Idea in Israel: From its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah, Macmillan 1955; Patai, Raphael, Messiah Texts, Wayne State University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8143-1850-9; Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pg. 461. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0-06-061659-8. Patai and Klausner state that one interpretation of the prophecies reveal either two Messiahs, Messiah ben Yosef (the dying Messiah) and Messiah ben David (the Davidic King), or one Messiah who comes twice. Crossan cites the Essene teachings about the twin Messiahs. Compare to the Christian doctrine of the Second Coming.]
This is distinct from an earlier commission Jesus gave to the twelve Apostles
, limited to "the lost sheep of Israel" and not including the Gentiles or Samaritans (niv|Matthew|10|Matt ).
Names and titles
main|Names and titles of Jesus in the New
According to most critical historians, Jesus probably lived in Galilee
for most of his life and he probably spoke Aramaic
. The name "Jesus" is an English
transliteration of the Latin
) which in turn comes from the Greek
name ). Since most scholars hold that Jesus was an Aramaic-speaking Jew living in Galilee around 30 AD/CE, it is highly improbable that he had a Greek personal name. Further examination of the Septuagint
finds that the Greek, in turn, is a transliteration of the Hebrew
- Yahweh is shua`
- help/salvation) or the shortened Hebrew/Aramaic Yeshua
or Jeshua (ישוע). As a result, scholars believe that one of these was most likely the name that Jesus was known by during his lifetime by his peers.
[Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. p. 558; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew. New York: Doubleday, 1991 vol. 1:205-7;]Christ
(which is a title and not a part of his name) is an Anglicization of the Greek term for Messiah
, and literally means "anointed one". Historians have debated what this title might have meant at the time Jesus lived; some historians have suggested that other titles applied to Jesus in the New Testament (e.g. Lord, Son of Man
, and Son of God) had meanings in the first century quite different from those meanings ascribed today: see Names and titles of Jesus
Historicity of the texts
see also|Historicity of
Most modern Biblical scholars hold that the works describing Jesus were initially communicated by oral tradition
, and were not committed to writing until several decades after Jesus' crucifixion. The earliest extant text
s which refer to Jesus are Paul
's letters, which are usually dated from the mid-1st century. Paul wrote that he only saw Jesus in visions, but that they were divine revelation
s and hence authoritative (Gal http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Galatians%201:11-12;&version=31; 1:11–12
). The earliest extant texts describing Jesus in any detail were the four New Testament Gospel
s. These texts, being part of the Biblical canon
, have received much more analysis and acceptance from Christian sources than other possible sources for information on Jesus.
Many other early Christian texts detail events in Jesus' life and teachings, though they were not included when the Bible was canonised
due to a belief that they were pseudepigraphical
, not inspired, or written too long after his death, while others were suppressed because they contradicted Christian orthodoxy
. It took several centuries before the list of what was and was not part of the Bible became finally fixed, and for much of the early period the Book of Revelation
was not included while works like The Shepherd of Hermas
The books that did not make it into the final list have since become known as the New Testament apocrypha
, and the chief amongst them, is the Gospel of Thomas
, a collection of logia
- phrases and sayings attributed to Jesus without a narrative framework, only rediscovered in the 20th century. Other important apocryphal works that had a heavy influence in forming traditional Christian beliefs include the Apocalypse of Peter
, Protevangelium of James
, Infancy Gospel of Thomas
, and Acts of Peter
. A number of Christian traditions (such as Veronica's veil
and the Assumption of Mary
) are found not in the canonical gospels but in these and other apocryphal works.
Possible earlier texts
Some texts with even earlier historical or mythological information on Jesus are speculated to have existed prior to the Gospels,
[Henry Bettenson, Chris Maunder, Documents of the Christian Church (3rd edition), Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-288071-3 ]
though none have been found. Based on the unusual similarities and differences (see synoptic problem
) between the Synoptic Gospels
, the first three canonical gospels — many Biblical scholars have suggested that oral tradition
(such as the Gospel of Thomas
and the theoretical Q document
[Daniel Gaztambide, http://www.aramaicnt.org/site/index.php?mode=article&entry=30 "The Synoptic Problem: Two-Source Hypothesis and Q", AramaicNT.org, accessed August 19, 2006.]
probably played a strong role in initially passing down stories of Jesus, and may have inspired some of the Synoptic Gospels.
Specifically, many scholars believe that the Q document and the Gospel of Mark were the two sources
used for the gospels of Matthew and Luke; however, other theories, such as the older Augustinian hypothesis
, continue to hold sway with some Biblical scholars. Another theoretical document is the Signs Gospel
, believed to have been a source for the Gospel of John
[Daniel Gaztambide, http://www.aramaicnt.org/site/index.php?mode=article&entry=28 "So Sayeth The Lord... According to Who?", AramaicNT.org, accessed March 14, 2006.]
There are also early noncanonical gospels which may predate the canonical Gospels, although few surviving fragments have been found. Among these are the Unknown Berlin Gospel
, the Oxyrhynchus Gospels
, the Egerton Gospel
, the Fayyum Fragment
, the Dialogue of the Saviour
, the Gospel of the Ebionites
, the Gospel of the Hebrews
, and the Gospel of the Nazarenes
. While the earliest surviving manuscripts and fragments of these texts are dated later than the earliest surviving manuscripts and fragments of the canonical Gospels, they are probably copies of earlier manuscripts whose precise dates are unknown.
Questions of reliability
As a result of the likely several-decade time gap between the writing of the Gospels and the events they describe, the accuracy of all early texts claiming the existence of Jesus or details of Jesus' life have been disputed by various parties. The authors of the Gospels are traditionally thought to have been witnesses to the events included. After the original oral stories were written down, they were transcribed, and later translated into other languages. Several Biblical historians have responded to claims of the unreliability of the gospel accounts by pointing out that historical documentation is often biased and second-hand, and frequently dates from several decades after the events described.
The Age of Enlightenment
and the Scientific Revolution
brought skepticism regarding the historical accuracy of these texts. Although some critical scholars, including archeologists, continue to use them as points of reference in the study of ancient Near Eastern history,
[Craig S. Hawkins, http://www.apologeticsinfo.org/papers/actsarcheology.html "The Book of Acts and Archaeology", Apologetics Information Ministry, accessed March 14, 2006.]
others have come to view the texts as cultural and literary documents, generally regarding them as part of the genre of literature called hagiography
, an account of a holy person regarded as representing a moral and divine ideal. Hagiography has a principal aim of the glorification of the religion itself and of the example set by the perfect holy person represented as its central focus.
Some say that the Gospel accounts are neither objective nor accurate, since they were written or compiled by his followers and seem to exclusively portray a positive, idealized view of Jesus, while others point to the lack of any non-Christian sources until Josephus
in the year 93. Those who have a naturalistic
view of history generally do not believe in divine intervention or miracles
, such as the resurrection of Jesus mentioned by the Gospels. One method used to estimate the factual accuracy of stories in the gospels is known as the "criterion of embarrassment
", which holds that stories about events with embarrassing aspects (such as the denial of Jesus by Peter
, or the fleeing of Jesus' followers after his arrest) would likely not have been included if those accounts were fictional.
External influences on gospel development
see also|Historicity of Jesus|Historical Jesus|Cultural and historical background of thumb|left|Vatican
mosaic (3rd c.): Sol Invictus
Many scholars, such as Michael Grant
, do not see significant similarity between the pagan myths and Christianity. Grant states in Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels
that "Judaism was a milieu to which doctrines of the deaths and rebirths, of mythical gods seemed so entirely foreign that the emergence of such a fabrication from its midst is very hard to credit."
[Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner, 1995 p. 199. ISBN 0-684-81867-1]
However, some scholars believe that the gospel accounts of Jesus have little or no historical basis. At least in part, this is because they see many similarities between stories about Jesus and older myths of pagan
godmen such as Mithras
, leading to conjectures that the pagan myths were adopted by some authors of early accounts of Jesus to form a syncretism
with Christianity. A small minority, such as Earl Doherty
, carry this further and propose that the gospels are actually a reworking of the older myths and not based on a historical figure
. While these connections are disputed by many, it is nevertheless true that many elements of Jesus' story as told in the Gospels have parallels in pagan mythology, where miracles such as virgin birth
were well-known. Some Christian authors, such as Justin Martyr
and C.S. Lewis
, account for this with the belief that such myths were created by ancient pagans with vague and imprecise foreknowledge
of the Gospels; in other words the pagans gave prophetic attributes of the Christ as shown in the Jewish Torah and Prophets to their particular deity. In fact, Lewis wrote that Christianity would be less believable if it didn't have themes in common with said pagan myths.
main|Religious perspectives on
main|Christian views of thumb|left|200px|Jesus Carrying the Cross, [El Greco
- Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 16th c.]
views of Jesus vary, it is possible to describe a general majority Christian view by examining the similarities between Catholic, Orthodox, and certain Protestant doctrines found in their catechetical
[This section draws on a number of sources to determine the doctrines of these groups, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord, and others.]
This view, given below as the Principal view, does not encompass all groups which describe themselves as Christian, with other views immediately following.
Christians predominately profess that Jesus is the Messiah (Greek: Christos
; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament,
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §436-40; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Irenaeus Adversus Haereses in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857-1866) 7/1, 93; niv|Luke|2:1|Luke ; niv|Matthew|16:16|Matthew ]
who, through his life, death, and resurrection, restored man's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant
. His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of mankind's salvation and the atonement for sin,
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §606-618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529;niv|John|14:2-3|John ]
which had entered human history
through the sin of Adam
[Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; niv|Romans|5:12-21|Rom ; niv|1_Corthians|15:21-22|1 Cor .]
They profess Jesus to be the only Son of God
, the Lord,
[Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §441-451; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; niv|Matthew|16:16-17|Matthew ; niv|1_Corinthians|2:8|1 Corinthians ]
and the eternal Word
[Augsburg Confession, article 3; niv|John|1:1|John ]
who became man in the incarnation
[Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §461-463;Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; niv|John|1:14-16|John 1:14, ; niv|Hebrews|10:5-7|Hebrews ]
so that those who believe in him might have eternal life.
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §456-460; Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 15 in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857-1866) 45, 48B; St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.19.1 in ibid. 7/1, 939; St. Athanasius, De inc., 54.3 in ibid. 25, 192B. St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. in ibid. 57: 1-4; niv|Galatians|4:4-5|Galatians ]
They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary
by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth
[Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §484-489, 494-507; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed]
In his life Jesus proclaimed the "good news" (Middle English: gospel
; Greek: euangelion
) that the coming Kingdom of Heaven
was at hand,
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §541-546]
and established the Christian Church
, which is the seed of the kingdom, into which Christ calls the poor in spirit.
[Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §551-553; Augsburg Confession, article 8; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Leo the Great, Sermo 4.3 in Patrologia Latina ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1841-1855); niv|Matthew|16:18|Matthew ]
Jesus' actions at the Last Supper
, where he instituted the Eucharist
, are understood as central to worship and communion with God.
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §1322-1419; Luther, Augsburg Confession, article 10; Small Catechism: the Sacrament of the Altar]
These groups profess Jesus suffered death by crucifixion,
[Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9] descended into Hell
[Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §632-635; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 3; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Council of Rome (745) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §587; Benedict XII, Cum dudum (1341) in ibid. §1011; Clement VI, Super quibusdam (1351) in ibid. §1077; Council of Toledo IV (625) in ibid. §485; niv|Matthew|27:52-53|Matthew ]
and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection
of mankind at the end of time,
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §638-655; Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 4 and 17; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; See also, http://www.apologetics.com apologetics.com and http://www.worldinvisible.com worldinvisible.com.]
when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead
, resulting in election to Heaven or damnation to Hell.
[Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed Catechism of the Catholic Church §668-675, 678-679; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; niv|Matthew|25:32-46|Mt ]
The nature of Jesus was theologically articulated and refined by a series of seven ecumenical council
s, between 325 and 681 (see Christology
). These councils described Jesus as one of the three divine hypostases
or persons of the Holy Trinity
: the Son is defined as constituting, together with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, the single substance
of the One God.
[Nicene Creed; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 1; Augsburg Confession, article 1; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 3; Council of Nicaea I (325) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §126; Council of Constantinople II (553) in ibid. §424 and 424; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §255; niv|John|1:1|John ; ; ]
Furthermore, Jesus is defined to be one person with a fully human and a fully divine nature
, a doctrine known as the Hypostatic union
[Catechism of the Catholic Church §464-469; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2 and 3]
Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Council of Ephesus (431) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §250; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §251; Council of Chalcedon (451) in ibid. §301 and 302; niv|Hebrews|4:15|Hebrews
(an articulation not accepted by Oriental Orthodoxy
, see Nestorianism
). In defense of Jesus' divinity, some apologists argue that there is a trilemma
, or three possibilities, resulting from Jesus' reported claims that he is the one God of Israel:
either he is truly God, a liar, or a lunatic — the latter two dismissed on the basis of Jesus's coherence.
[e.g. C.S. Lewis and Peter Kreeft (1988): http://www.peterkreeft.com/topics/christ-divinity.htm "The Divinity of Jesus Christ" from Fundamentals of the Faith. Ignatius Press.]
Groups that do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity include the Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
and Jehovah's Witnesses
. LDS theology maintains that the Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are three separate and distinct beings, though all eternal and equally divine, who together constitute the Godhead
. Though described as "one God in purpose", each play different roles: the Holy Ghost is a spirit without a physical body, the Father and Son possess distinct, perfected, bodies of flesh and bone. The Book of Mormon
records that the resurrected Jesus visited and taught some of the inhabitants of the early Americas after he appeared to his apostles in Jerusalem.
[sourcetext|source=Book of Mormon|book=3 ]
Mormons also believe that an apostasy
occurred after the death of Christ and his apostles. They believe that Christ and the Heavenly Father appeared to Joseph Smith
in 1820 as part of a series of heavenly visits to restore the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus (not the Father) is the same as Jehovah
of the Old Testament
. See Jesus in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
believe Jesus to be God's (or Jehovah's) son, but rather than being God himself, Jehovah's Witnesses believe he was the same divine creature as Michael the Archangel, and that he became a perfect human to come down to earth.
["Jesus The Ruler Whose Origin Is From Early Times", The Watchtower (15 June 1998) p. 22.]
They view the term "Son of God" as an indication of Jesus' importance to the creator and his status as God's "only-begotten (unique) Son",
the "firstborn of all creation",
the one "of whom, and through whom, and to whom, are all things".
Lastly, they believe that Jesus died on a single-piece torture stake, not a cross.
[See the http://www.watchtower.org/library/jt/article_03.htm Jehovah's Witnesses Official Web Site, c.f. niv|Galatians|3:13|Galatians and niv|Acts|5:30|Acts ]
Other non-Trinitarian group include Arians
, in antiquity, and in more recent times Unitarians
Other early views
Various early Christian
groups and theologians held differing views of Jesus.
, an early Jewish Christian
community, believed that Jesus was the last of the prophets
and the Messiah
. They believed that Jesus was the natural-born son of Mary and Joseph, and thus they rejected the Virgin Birth. The Ebionites were adoptionists
, believing that Jesus was not divine, but became the son of God
at his baptism. They rejected the Epistles of Paul
, believing that Jesus kept the Mosaic Law
perfectly and wanted his followers to do the same. However, they felt that Jesus' crucifixion was the ultimate sacrifice, and thus animal sacrifice
s were no longer necessary. Therefore, some Ebionites were vegetarian
and considered both Jesus and John the Baptist
to have been vegetarians.
[Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 102.]
, Jesus is said to have brought the secret knowledge (gnosis
) of the spiritual world necessary for salvation.
[McManners, John, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 26-31.]
Their secret teachings were paths to gnosis, and not gnosis itself. While some Gnostics were docetics
, other Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of Christ during his baptism.
[Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 124-125.]
Many Gnostics believed that Christ was an Aeon
sent by a higher deity
than the evil demiurge
who created the material world. Some Gnostics believed that Christ had a syzygy
. The Gnostics tended to interpret the books that were included in the New Testament
, and some Gnostics interpreted Jesus himself as an allegory. The Gnostics also used a number of other texts
that did not become part of the New Testament canon. Marcionites
were 2nd century Gentile
followers of the Christian theologian Marcion of Sinope
. They believed that Jesus rejected the Jewish Scriptures
, or at least the parts that were incompatible with his teachings.
[Wace, Henry, http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/info/marcion-wace.html Commentary on Marcion]
Seeing a stark contrast between the vengeful God of the Old Testament
and the loving God of Jesus, Marcion came to the conclusion that the Jewish God and Jesus were two separate deities. Like some Gnostics, Marcionites saw the Jewish God as the evil creator of the world, and Jesus as the savior from the material world. They also believed Jesus was not human, but instead a completely divine spiritual being whose material body, and thus his crucifixion and death, were divine illusions
. Marcion was the first known early Christian to have created a canon
, which consisted of ten Pauline epistles
, and a version
of the Gospel of Luke
(possibly without the first two chapters that are in modern versions, and without Jewish references),
[Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 103, p. 104-105, p.108]
and his treatise on the Antithesis
between the Old and New Testaments. Marcionism was declared a heresy
by proto-orthodox Christianity.Montanists
in the 2nd century
in the 3rd century
taught that the Trinity represented not three persons but a single person in three "modes."
main|Islamic views of
, Jesus (known as Isa
in Arabic, Arabic
: عيسى), is considered one of God's most-beloved and important prophets
and the Messiah.
[Sheikh Ahmad Kuftaro, http://www.kuftaro.org/english/Islam/jesus.htm "What is Islam? Jesus", Kuftaro.org, accessed March 15, 2006.]
Like Christian writings, the seventh-century Qur'an
holds that Jesus was born without a biological father to the virgin Mary, by the will of God (in Arabic, Allah
) and for this reason is referred to as Isa ibn Maryam
(English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic
(since he had no biological father). (Qur'an , , , ) In Muslim traditions, Jesus lived a perfect life of nonviolence, showing kindness to humans and animals (similar to the other Islamic prophets), without material possessions, and abstaining from sin
[III&E, http://www.islam.tc/alhilaal/site/poi.html "Prophethood in Islam", Accessed March 19, 2006]
Most Muslims believe that Jesus abstained from alcohol, and many believe that he also abstained from eating animal flesh. Similarly, Islamic belief also holds that Jesus could perform miracles, but only by the will of God.
[http://www.soundvision.com/Info/Jesus/inIslam.asp "The Islamic and Christian views of Jesus: a comparison", ISoundvision, accessed March 15, 2006.]
s do not believe Jesus to have divine nature as God nor as the Son of God. Islam greatly separates the status of creatures from the status of the creator and warns against believing that Jesus was divine. (Qu'ran , , ). Muslims believe that Jesus received a gospel from God called the Injil
in Arabic that corresponds to the Christian New Testament, but that parts of it have been misinterpreted over time so that they no longer accurately represent God's message (See Tahrif
[Abdullah Ibrahim, http://www.arabicbible.com/islam/hit.htm "The History of the Quran and the Injil", Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, accessed March 15, 2006.]
Muslims also do not believe in Jesus' sacrificial role, nor do they believe that Jesus died on the cross. In fact, Islam does not accept any human sacrifice for sin (See Islamic conceptions of atonement for sin
for further information). Regarding the crucifixion, the Qur'an states that Jesus' death was merely an illusion of God to deceive his enemies, and that Jesus ascended to heaven.
[Sheikh Ahmad Kuftaro, http://www.kuftaro.org/english/Islam/jesus.htm "What is Islam? Jesus", Kuftaro.org, accessed March 15, 2006.]
(Qur'an .) Based on the quotes attributed to Muhammad, some Muslims believe that Jesus will return to the world in the flesh following Imam Mahdi
to defeat the Dajjal
-like figure, translated as "Deceiver").
[Mufti A.H. Elias, http://www.islam.tc/prophecies/jesus.html "Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming", Islam.tc, accessed March 15,2006.]
Muslims believe he will descend at Damascus
, presently in Syria
, once the world has become filled with sin, deception, and injustice; he will then live out the rest of his natural life. Sunni Muslims believe that after his death, Jesus will be buried alongside Muhammad
, presently in Saudi Arabia
[Mufti A.H. Elias, http://www.islam.tc/prophecies/jesus.html "Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming", Islam.tc Network, accessed May 10, 2006.]
However, the sects of Sunni
Islam are divided over this issue. Some Islamic scholars like Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
and Amin Ahsan Islahi
question quotes attributed to Muhammad
regarding a second coming of Jesus, as they believe it is against different verses of the Qur'an.
[Geoffrey Parrinder, Jesus in the Quran, p.121, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-85168-094-2] [Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, http://www.al-mawrid.org/Content/ViewReaderQuestion.aspx?questionId=318 Qur'anic Verse regarding Second Coming of Jesus.] [http://www.renaissance.com.pk/septitl2y4.html The Second Coming of Jesus, Renaissance - Monthly Islamic Journal, 14(9), September 2004.] [cite book | last = Islahi | first = Amin | authorlink = Amin Ahsan Islahi | title = Tadabbur-i-Qur’an | publisher = Faran Foundation | location = Lahore | edition = 1st | id = vol.2, p.243]
Muslim Movement (a very small percentage of Muslims) believes that Jesus survived the crucifixion and travelled to Kashmir
, where he died as a prophet under the name of Yuz Asaf
(whose grave they identify in Srinagar
[M. M. Ahmad, http://www.alislam.org/library/links/00000094.html#8 "The Lost Tribes of Israel: The Travels of Jesus", Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Accessed March 16, 2006.]
Mainstream Muslims, however, consider these views heretical. Historical research found these accounts to be without foundation. Even then, the tomb of Jesus has been suggested to be found in Srinagar, Kashmir India.
[Günter Grönbold, Jesus In Indien, München: Kösel 1985, ISBN 3-466-2070-1 Please check ISBN|3-466-2070-1 (too . Norbert Klatt, Lebte Jesus in Indien?, Göttingen: Wallstein 1988.]
main|Judaism's view of Judaism
holds the idea of Jesus being God, or part of a Trinity, or a mediator to God, to be heresy.(Emunoth ve-Deoth
, II:5) Judaism also holds that Jesus is not the Messiah
, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies
in the Tanakh
nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
[Rabbi Shraga Simmons, http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/jewishsociety/Why_Jews_Dont_Believe_In_Jesus.asp "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus", accessed March 14, 2006; http://ohr.edu/ask_db/ask_main.php/2637/Q1/ "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus", Ohr Samayach - Ask the Rabbi, accessed March 14, 2006; http://www.askmoses.com/qa_detail.html?h=120&o=350 "Why don't Jews believe that Jesus was the messiah?", AskMoses.com, accessed March 14, 2006.]
The Mishneh Torah
(an authoritative work of Jewish law
:Even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah
and was killed by the court, was already prophesied by Daniel
. So that it was said, “And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a (prophetic) vision stand. And they stumbled” (Daniel 11.14). Because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one? So that all of the prophet
s spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. And this one caused (nations) to destroy Israel by sword, and to scatter their remnant, and to humiliate them, and to exchange the Torah, and to make the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to attain them because our ways are not God's ways, and our thoughts not God's thoughts. And all these things of Jesus the Nazarene, and of (Muhammad
) the Ishmael
ite who stood after him — there is no (purpose) but to straighten out the way for the King Messiah, and to restore all the world to serve God together. So that it is said, “Because then I will turn toward the nations (giving them) a clear lip, to call all of them in the name of God and to serve God (shoulder to shoulder as) one shoulder.” (Zephaniah 3.9). Look how all the world already becomes full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah
, and the things of the commandments! And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart. (Hilkhot Melakhim
[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/i/e511.htm "Hilchot Malachim (laws concerning kings) (Hebrew)", MechonMamre.org, accessed March 14, 2006.]Reform Judaism
, the modern progressive movement, states For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate.
(Contemporary American Reform Responsa, #68).
[http://www.faqs.org/faqs/judaism/FAQ/10-Reform/section-15.html "Question 18.3.4: Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?", faqs.org, accessed March 14, 2006.]
According to Jewish tradition, there were no more prophets after 420 BC/BCE
being the last prophet, who lived centuries before Jesus. Judaism states that Jesus did not fulfill the requirements set by the Torah
to prove that he was a prophet. Even if Jesus had produced such a sign, Judaism states that no prophet or dreamer can contradict the laws already stated in the Torah (http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=9977 Deut 13:1–5
[Rabbi Ephraim Buchwald, http://www.njop.org/html/REEH5764-2004.html "Parashat Re'eh 5764-2004: Identifying a True Prophet", National Jewish Outreach Program, accessed March 14, 2006; Tracey Rich, http://www.jewfaq.org/prophet.htm "Prophets and Prophecy", Judaism 101, accessed March 14, 2006; Rabbi Pinchas Frankel, http://www.ou.org/about/judaism/history.htm "Covenant of History: A Fools Prophecy", Orthodox Union of Jewish Congregations of America, accessed March 14, 2006;Laurence Edwards, http://urj.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2819&pge_prg_id=26382&pge_id=3453 "Torat Hayim - Living Torah: No Rest(s) for the Wicked", Union of American Hebrew Congregations, accessed March 14, 2006.]
Buddhists' views of Jesus differ, due to Jesus not being mentioned in any Buddhist text, and Buddhism's lack of centralized doctrine. Some Buddhists
, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama
[cite web |url=http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2001/june11/15.64.html |title=Hollywood's Idol |accessdate=2006-10-23 |last=Beverley |first=James A. |date=2001-06-11 |work=Christianity Today |publisher= |quote="Jesus Christ also lived previous lives," he said. "So, you see, he reached a high state, either as a Bodhisattva, or an enlightened person, through Buddhist practice or something like ]
regard Jesus as a bodhisattva
who dedicated his life to the welfare of human beings. Some Buddhist scholars have noted parallels between the teachings of Jesus and Gautama Buddha
both in terms of preaching a doctrine of love and compassion and of occupying a similar position with respect to the existing religious orthodoxy of their day of which they were both critical. Both advocated radical alterations in the common religious practices of the day. There are occasional similarities in language, such as the use of the common metaphor of a line of blind men to refer to religious authorities they disagreed with (DN
15:14). Some believe there is a particularly close affinity between Buddhism (or Eastern spiritual thought generally) and the doctrine of Gnostic
texts such as The Gospel of Thomas
[ http://buddhistfaith.tripod.com/pureland_sangha/id59.html Gospel of Thomas:The Buddhist Jesus? accessed April 10, 2006.]
Hinduism's views Hindu
beliefs in Jesus vary. Some believe that Jesus was a normal man. Many Hindus see Jesus as a wise guru
who was not God. Many in the Surat Shabd Yoga
tradition regard Jesus as a Satguru
. Swami Vivekananda
has praised Jesus and cited him as a source of strength and the epitome of perfection.
[ name=vivekananda>http://www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info/vivekananda/volume_4/lectures_and_discourses/christ_the_messenger.htm Christ the Messenger. Accessed April 10, 2006.] Paramahansa Yogananda
taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha
and a student of John the Baptist
, the reincarnation of Elijah
[Paramahansa Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, 2nd ed., Crystal Clarity Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-56589-212-7.] Mahatma Gandhi
considered Jesus one of his main teachers and inspirations for Nonviolent Resistance
, saying "I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ."
[ wikiquote:Mahatma Gandhi; http://www.geocities.com/orthopapism/gandhi.html Gandhi vs. Christ. Both accessed on April 10, 2006.]Yuz Asaf
, regarded as Jesus by the minority Ahmadiyya
Muslim Movement, is seen also as a holy man by some Hindus and Buddhists.
Other views of Jesus
The Bahá'í Faith
considers Jesus, along with Muhammad
, the Buddha
, and others, to be "Manifestations
" (or prophets) of God, with both human and divine stations. While some Bahá'í views of Jesus agree with Christian views, Christians do not accept the Bahá'í view of Jesus.
[http://www.safnet.com/bahai/docs/christ.html The Bahá'í Position on Christianity http://www.contenderministries.org/bahai/beliefs.php#Jesus Jesus Christ was a "Manifestation" of God. Both accessed April 10, 2006.]Mandaeanism
regards Jesus as a deceiving prophet (mšiha kdaba) of the false Jewish god of the Old Testament, Adonai
[http://www.gnosis.org/library/haran.htm Mandaean Scriptures and Fragments: The Haran Gawaitha]
and an opponent of the good prophet John the Baptist
. Even so, they believe that John baptized Jesus.
The New Age
movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus, often recognizing him as a "great teacher" (or Ascended Master
") similar to Buddha
. Some (such as A Course In Miracles
) claim to go so far as to trance-channel
his spirit. Although the New Age movement generally teaches that Christhood is something that all may attain, many New Age teachings such as reincarnation
appear to reflect a certain discomfort with traditional Christianity. Numerous New Age subgroups claim Jesus as a supporter, often incorporating contrasts with or protests against the Christian mainstream. Thus, for example, Theosophy
and its offshoots have Jesus studying esotericism
in the Himalaya
s or Egypt
during his "lost years."
There are many non-religious people who emphasize Jesus' moral teachings. Garry Wills
argues that Jesus' ethics are distinct from those usually taught by Christianity.
[ Wills, Garry, What Jesus Meant (2006) ISBN 0-670-03496-7]
The Jesus Seminar
[John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperSanFrancisco (1993), ISBN 0-06-061629-6; Robert Funk, The Five Gospels: What Did Jesus Really Say? The Search for the AUTHENTIC Words of Jesus, Harper San Francisco (1997), ISBN 0-06-063040-X; Robert Funk, The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?, The Jesus Seminar, Harper San Francisco (1998), ISBN 0-06-062978-9; The Jesus Seminar, The Gospel of Jesus: According to the Jesus Seminar, Robert Walter Funk (Editor), Polebridge Press (1999), ISBN 0-944344-74-7]
portrays Jesus as an itinerant preacher (niv|Matthew|4:23|Matt ), who taught peace (niv|Matthew|5:9|Matt ) and love (niv|Matthew|5:44|Matt ), rights for women (niv|Luke|10:42|Luke ) and respect for children (niv|Matthew|19:14|Matt ), and who spoke out against the hypocrisy of religious leaders (niv|Luke|13:15|Luke ) and the rich (niv|Matthew|19:24|Matt ). Thomas Jefferson
, one of the Founding Fathers
that many consider to have been a deist
, created a "Jefferson Bible
" for the Indians entitled "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" that included only Jesus' ethical teachings.
There are, however, those who do not regard Jesus' teaching or life to have had any worth. Many people regard his moral teachings to have decidedly repugnant . Others still, such as Bertrand Russell, see them as surpassed by other philosophers; Bertrand writes 'I cannot myself feel that either in the matter of wisdom or in the matter of virtue Christ stands quite as high as some other people known to History. I think I should put Buddha and Socrates above Him in those respects.'http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/russell0.htm
Nietzsche regarded the character of Jesus as being worthy only of contempt, and saw nothing worthwhile in his teachings. In a similar vein, the founder of the Church of Satan
, Anton LaVey
, described Jesus (at his crucifixion) as 'pallid incompetence nailed to a tree' (Satanic Bible
, pg. 11).
Cultural effect of Jesus thumb|right|Michelangelo, 16th c.: Jesus' mother Mary holds the body of her dead son">[Pietà
, 16th c.: Jesus' mother Mary holds the body of her dead son]
see also|Images of Jesus|Dramatic portrayals of Jesus|Cultural depictions of Jesus
According to most Christian interpretations of the Bible
, the theme of Jesus' preachings was that of repentance
, forgiveness of sin, grace, and the coming of the Kingdom of God
. Jesus extensively trained disciples who, after his death, interpreted and spread his teachings. Within a few decades his followers comprised a religion clearly distinct from Judaism
. Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire
under a version known as Nicene Christianity
and became the state religion
under Constantine the Great
. Over the centuries, it spread to most of Europe
, and around the world.
Jesus has been drawn, painted, sculpted
, and portrayed on stage and in films
in many different ways, both serious and humorous
. In fact most medieval art
, and many since, were centered around the figure of Jesus. A number of popular novels, such as The Da Vinci Code
, have also portrayed various ideas about Jesus. Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have become part of the culture of Western civilization
. There are many items purported to be relics of Jesus
, of which the most famous are the Shroud of Turin
and the Sudarium of Oviedo
Other legacies include a view of God as more fatherly, merciful, and more forgiving, and the growth of a belief in an afterlife
and in the resurrection of the dead
. His teaching promoted the value of those who had commonly been regarded as inferior: women, the poor, ethnic outsiders, children, prostitutes, the sick, prisoners, etc. Jesus and his message have been interpreted, explained and understood by many people. Jesus has been explained notably by Paul of Tarsus
, Augustine of Hippo
, Martin Luther
, and more recently by C.S. Lewis
For some, the legacy of Jesus has been a long history of Christian anti-Semitism
, although in the wake of the Holocaust
many Christian groups have gone to considerable lengths to reconcile with Jews and to promote interfaith dialog and mutual respect. For others, Christianity has often been linked to European colonialism
(see British Empire
, Portuguese Empire
, Spanish Empire
, French colonial empire
, Dutch colonial empire
); conversely, Christians have often found themselves as oppressed minorities in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and in the Maghreb
* General Topics
** Anno Domini
and Common Era
(which show how Jesus' birth has influenced the modern day calendar)
** The Bible
** List of books about Jesus
* Jesus and History
** Christian apologetics
** Apostolic Succession of Jesus
** Genealogy of Jesus
** Historical Jesus
** New Testament view on Jesus' life
** Historicity of Jesus
** Jesus as myth
** Jesus Seminar
* Environment of Jesus
** Cultural background of Jesus
** Race of Jesus
** Biblical Jesus
* New Testament Jesus
** Miracles of Jesus
** Death and Resurrection of Jesus
** Sermon on the Mount
* Views on Jesus
** Religious perspectives on Jesus
** Islamic view of Jesus
** Pauline Christianity
* Related topics
** List of founders of major religions
** List of people who have been considered deities
** List of people who have claimed to be Jesus
** List of messiah claimants
* Allison, Dale
. Jesus of Nazareth: Millenarian Prophet.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1999. ISBN 0-8006-3144-7
* Brown, Raymond E.
. An Introduction to the New Testament.
New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2
* Cohen, Shaye J.D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah.
Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1988. ISBN 0-664-25017-3
* Cohen, Shaye J.D. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0-520-22693-3
* Crossan, John Dominic
. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant.
New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. ISBN 0-06-061629-6
* Guy Davenport
and Benjamin Urrutia
. The Logia of Yeshua ; The Sayings of Jesus
. Washington, DC: 1996. ISBN 1-887178-70-8
* De La Potterie, Ignace. "The Hour of Jesus." New York: Alba House, 1989.
* Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ.
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. ISBN 0-671-11500-6
* Ehrman, Bart
. The Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-514183-0
* Ehrman, Bart
. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-515462-2
* Fredriksen, Paula
. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity.
New York: Vintage, 2000. ISBN 0-679-76746-0
* Fredriksen, Paula
. From Jesus to Christ.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-300-04864-5
* Finegan, Jack. Handbook of Biblical Chronology
, revised ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-56563-143-9.
*Fuller, Reginald H., The Foundations of New Testament Christology
. New York: Scribners, 1965. ISBN 684-31039-2 Please check ISBN|684-31039-2 (too
* Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus
, New York: Anchor Doubleday
: v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person
, 1991. ISBN 0-385-26425-9
: v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles
, 1994. ISBN 0-385-46992-6
: v. 3, Companions and Competitors
, 2001. ISBN 0-385-46993-4
* O'Collins, Gerald. Interpreting Jesus.
Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1983.
* Pelikan, Jaroslav
. Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07987-7
* Robinson, John A. T. Redating the New Testament.
Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001 (original 1977). ISBN 1-57910-527-0.
* Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus.
New York: Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0-14-014499-4
* Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8006-2061-5
* Vermes, Geza
. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981. ISBN 0-8006-1443-7
* Vermes, Geza
. The Religion of Jesus the Jew.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2797-0
* Vermes, Geza
. Jesus in his Jewish Context.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0-8006-3623-6
* Wilson, A.N. Jesus.
London: Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0-7126-0697-1
* Wright, N.T. Jesus and the Victory of God.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1997. ISBN 0-8006-2682-6
* Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0-8006-2679-6
* http://about-jesus.org About-Jesus.org
* http://www.wikichristian.org/index.php?title=Jesus Jesus Christ at WikiChristian
* http://www.latinvulgate.com/christverse.aspx Complete Sayings of Jesus Christ In Parallel Latin & English -- The Complete Christ Sayings
* http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08374c.htm Jesus Christ Catholic Encyclopedia article
* http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,90-1-10-1,00.html Latter-day Saint statement on the divinity of Jesus Christ
* http://www.atmajyoti.org/spirwrit-christianity.asp An Hindu perspective on Jesus
* http://www.islamfrominside.com/Pages/Articles/Jesus%20-%20An%20Islamic%20Perspective.html An Islamic perspective on Jesus
* http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/topic/christ.html The Historic & Reformation View of Jesus Christ
: Solus Christus, Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Sola Scriptura, Soli Deo Gloria
* http://www.christnotes.org/dictionary.php?dict=sbd&id=2398 Jesus Christ
- Smith's Bible Dictionary articleHistorical and skeptical views
* http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/history/jesus.htm Overview of the Life of Jesus
A summary of New Testament accounts.
* http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/ From Jesus to Christ
— A Frontline
documentary on Jesus and early Christianity.
* http://www.religiousstudies.uncc.edu/JDTABOR/indexb.html The Jewish Roman World of Jesus
* http://pages.ca.inter.net/~oblio/jhcjp.htm The Jesus Puzzle
- Earl Doherty
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Jesus Christ (honorific); Jesus of Nazareth (traditional); יֵשׁ֣וּעַ (Hebrew); Yeshua (transliteration); Isa (Islam)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION=Religious figure, founded Christianity
|DATE OF BIRTH=c. 4 BC
|PLACE OF BIRTH=Bethlehem
, Iudaea Province
|DATE OF DEATH=c. 30
|PLACE OF DEATH=Jerusalem
, Iudaea Province*JesusCategory:New Testament peopleCategory:Disputed convictionsCategory:People executed by crucifixionCategory:JewsCategory:0s BC birthsCategory:1st century deathsCategory:Musical theatre charactersaf:Jesus Christusam:ኢየሱስang:Iesus Cristar:يسوع
Link an:Chesús de Nazaretast:Xesúsaz:İsabm:Yesu Kristabn:যিশুzh-min-nan:Iâ-so͘be:Езус Хрыстусbi:Jisas Kraesbs:Isusbg:Иисус Христосca:Jesús de Natzaretcv:Иисус Христосcs:Ježíš Kristusny:Yesu Kristucy:Iesu Gristda:Jesus fra Nazaretpdc:Yeesus Grischdusde:Jesus von Nazaret
Link arc:ܝܫܘet:Jeesusel:Ιησούς Χριστόςes:Jesús de Nazareteo:Jesuo Kristoee:Yesu Kristofr:Jésus de Nazarethga:Íosa Críostgd:Iosa Chrìosdko:예수hy:Յիսուս Քրիստոսhi:ईसा मसीहhr:Isusilo:Jesusid:Yesus Kristusia:Jesus Christozu:UJesu Krestuis:Jesúsit:Gesùhe:ישוkn:ಯೇಸು ಕ್ರಿಸ್ತka:ქრისტეkk:Исаkw:Yesu Kristsw:Yesukv:Исус Христосkg:Yesukj:Jesus Kristusku:Îsala:Iesuslv:Jēzus Kristuslb:Jesus vun Nazaretlt:Jėzus Kristusli:Zjezus Christuslg:Jesu Kristohu:Jézusmk:Исус Христосml:യേശു ക്രിസ്തുmi:Ihu Karaitims:Jesus Christmn:Есүс Христna:Jesu Kristofj:Jisu Karisitonl:Jezus (traditioneel-christelijk benaderd)ne:यशु क्राइस्टja:イエス・キリストno:Jesus Kristusnn:Jesusnrm:Jésus-Chrîthz:Jesus Kristusug:ئەيسا پەيغەمبەرpa:ਈਸਾ ਮਸੀਹnds:Jesus Christuspl:Jezus Chrystuspt:Jesusty:Iesu Mesiaro:Isus din Nazaretrm:Gesu da Nazaretru:Иисус Христосsm:Iesu Kerisosq:Jezu Krishtiscn:Gesù Cristusimple:Jesussk:Ježiš Kristussl:Jezus Kristussr:Исус Христосsh:Isusfi:Jeesussv:Jesustl:Hesusta:இயேசு கிறிஸ்துtt:Ğaysate:యేసుక్రీస్తుth:พระเยซูvi:Giê-sutg:Исоtpi:Jisasve:Yesu Kristotr:İsatw:Yesu Kristouk:Ісус Христосuz:Iso Masihts:Yesu Kresteyi:ישועzh-yue:耶穌zh:耶稣