Nursing, Portal:Nursing/Nursing history
, Nursing home
, Nursing diagnosis
, Nursing school
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is a profession
focused on assisting individuals, families
in attaining, re-attaining and maintaining optimal health
and functioning. Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science
and an art
that focuses on promoting quality of life
as defined by persons and families, throughout their life experiences from birth
to care at the end of life
History of nursing thumb|right|200px|A Nurse
with a hospital ship
.">[U.S. Navy recruiting poster from World War II. It shows a Navy Nurse
with a hospital ship
In premodern times, nun
s and the military often provided nursing services. The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today. For example, in Britain, senior female nurses are known as "Sisters".Florence Nightingale
is regarded as the founder of modern nursing, which flourished in response to the Crimean War
. New Zealand
was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with adoption of the Nurses Registration Act
on the 12th of September 1901. Ellen Dougherty
was the first Registered Nurse
For more information on prominent nurses, both historical and contemporary, see articles on individual nurses
. There are also articles on nursing museums
on Wikipedia. Many of these museums, such as the American Museum of Nursing
, have online galleries.
see also|Timeline of nursing
Nursing as a profession
Nursing, like all professions, is based on the ideal of service to humanity. The practice of nursing involves altruistic
behavior, is guided by nursing research
and is governed by a code of ethics
Nursing continues to develop a wide body of knowledge and associated skills. There are a number of education
al paths to becoming a professional nurse but all involve extensive study of nursing theory
and practice and training in clinical skills
The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice
is defined and governed by law and entrance to the profession is regulated by national, state, or territorial boards of nursing.
The American Nurses Association
has defined nursing as "the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy
in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations."
[ANA. Nursing's Social Policy Statement, Second Edition, 2003, p. 6 & Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2004, p. 7.]
based Royal College of Nursing
offers this definition: Nursing is "The use of clinical judgement in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death."
[http://www.rcn.org.uk/downloads/definingnursing/definingnursing-a5.pdf RCN (2003) Defining nursing Retrieved October 2006]
Nursing theory and process
In gereral terms, the nursing process
is the method used to assess
and implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories
derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigm
s or worldview
s to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals.
Regulation of practice
The practice of nursing is governed by laws which define a scope of practice
, generally mandated by the the legislature of the political division within which the nurse practices. Nurses are held legally responsible and accountable for their practice. The standard of care
is that of the "prudent nurse".
Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions
. It is a universal role, appearing in some form in every culture.
see also|List of nursing
main|Nursing in the United
The Nursing and Midwifery Council
in the UK
is the regulatory body for nurses, midwives
and specialist practitioners. It maintains a register that is split into three parts:
*Specialist Community Public Health Nurses (which includes Health Visitors
Prior to the creation of the new three part register on 1st August 2004, nurses and midwives were divided into a part of the register they held a qualification in. This may be now described as a 'sub-part' of the nursing register
, a list of which appears here
All newly qualified nurses register in 'sub-part' 12, 13, 14 or 15 showing their branch qualification. However, nurses still practising and holding qualifications in 'sub-parts' 1-9 are registered as such.
To become a nurse within the United Kingdom, one must at the very minimum hold a Diploma in Nursing
and have trained for three years, or equivalent if from overseas. After training, the opportunities are vast, with many different areas of nursing, from general ward to teaching or management. Also the practice areas can be in hospital, or in the community or both.
Many nurses are members of trade unions, which represent them both individually and as a profession, the two main unions are, UNISON
and the Royal College of Nursing.
main|Nursing in the United
In the US, there are over 200 specialties
within nursing. These specialties encompass care throughout the human lifespan based upon patient needs.Professional organizations
or certifying boards
issue voluntary certification
in many of these areas to signify expert knowledge of the specialty. Certified nurses often earn a salary differential over their non-certified colleagues, and studies from the Institute of Medicine have demonstrated that specialty certified nurses have higher rates of patient satisfaction, as well as lower rates of work-related errors in patient care.
Nurses practice in a wide range of settings from hospital
s to visiting people in their homes
and caring for them in schools
to research in pharmaceutical companies
. Nurses work in occupational health
settings (also called industrial health settings), free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-run clinics, long-term care facilities, and camps. Nurses work on cruise ships and in military service. They act as advisors and consultants to the healthcare and insurance industries. Some nurses are attorneys and others work with attorneys as legal nurse consultant
s, reviewing patient records to assure that adequate care was provided and testifying in court. In many cities, nurses can even enter their names in a "registry" and work a wide variety of temporary jobs.
*History of nursing
**Nursing care plan
**List of nursing specialties
*List of nurses
* Prominent nurses
* Nursing in Australia
* http://www.aahn.org/ American Association for the History of Nursing
* http://www.aahn.org/weblink.html Nursing History Internet Resources de:Krankenpflegees:Enfermeríafr:Soin infirmierko:간호ia:Infirmeriait:Nursinghe:סיעודja:看護no:Sykepleienn:sjukepleiepl:Pielęgnowaniept:Enfermagemth:พยาบาลศาสตร์zh:护理学