Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan
, Weyburn, Saskatchewan
, Saskatchewan River
, Yorkton, Saskatchewan
, Saskatchewan Roughriders
, University of Saskatchewan
, Nipawin, Saskatchewan
, Battleford, Saskatchewan
, Saskatchewan Party
is the middle province
three prairie provinces
. It has an area of 651,900 km² (251,700 mi²) and a population of 985,386 (Saskatchewanians
) as of July 1, 2006. Most of its population lives in the southern half of the province. The largest city is Saskatoon
with a population of 235,800 (July 1, 2005), followed by the province's capital, Regina
(population: 199,000, July 1, 2005). Other major cities (in order of size) include Prince Albert
, Moose Jaw
, Swift Current
, and North Battleford
. See also List of communities in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is (approximately) a quadrilateral
bounded on the west by Alberta
, on the north by the Northwest Territories
, on the east by Manitoba
, and on the south by the American
states of Montana
and North Dakota
. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. It is also one of only two provinces that are completely land-locked.
The province's name comes from the Saskatchewan River
, whose name comes from its Cree
: ᑭᓯᐢᑳᒋᐘᓂ ᓯᐱᐩ), meaning "swift flowing river".
[http://geonames.nrcan.gc.ca/education/prov_e.php#sk Name Source from the Government of Canada]
MunicipalitiesTen largest municipalities by population
Note that the list does not include Lloydminster
, which has a total population of 23,632 but straddles the Alberta
-Saskatchewan border. As of 2001
, only 7,840 people lived on the Saskatchewan side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 11th largest municipality.
Saskatchewan's economy is traditionally associated with agriculture
; however, increasing diversification has meant that now agriculture, forestry
, and hunting
together make up only 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan grows 45% of Canada's grain. Wheat
is the most familiar crop, and perhaps the one stereotypically associated with the province, but other grains like canola
s, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley
are also produced. Beef cattle production in the province is only exceeded by Alberta. Mining
is also a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world leader in potash
exports. In the northern part of the province, forestry is significant.Oil
and Natural Gas
production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy. Oil and natural gas production is only exceeded by Alberta. Heavy crude is exctracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost completely in the western part of Saskatchewan from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and Maple Creek areas.
Saskatchewan is also the world's most important supplier of uranium
, and supplies much of the western world's supplies. The uranium industry is closely regulated by the provincial government which allows the government of Saskatchewan great latitude in setting world uranium prices.
Saskatchewan's GDP in 2003 was approximately $32 billion (Canadian), with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:
! %age !! Sector
| 17.1 || finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
| 13.0 || mining, petroleum
| 11.9 || education, health, social services
| 11.7 || wholesale and retail trade
| 9.1 || transportation, communications, utilities
| 7.7 || manufacturing
| 6.8 || agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
| 6.5 || business services
| 5.8 || government services
| 5.0 || construction
Important private-sector firms headquartered in Saskatchewan include the Hill family's Harvard Developments, the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool
, Concentra Financial Services, the steel
(though its operational headquarters is in Lisle
, a suburb of Chicago
), farm implement manufacturer Brandt Industries, PotashCorp
, and Cameco
s include major Saskatchewan-based entities are SaskTel
(the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower
runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw
. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government
for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility.
:For more information on the history of the province of Saskatchewan see also Saskatchewan History
Prior to European
settlement, Saskatchewan was settled by Athabaskan
, and Sioux
tribes. The first European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey
in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River
in hopes of trading fur with the province's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company
post at Cumberland House
founded by Samuel Hearne
In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser
and Henry Youle Hind
explored the prairie region of the province.
In the 1870s, the Government of Canada formed the Northwest Territories
to administer the vast territory between British Columbia
. The government also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples
of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between "First Nations", as they are called today, and the Crown. Soon after, the First Nations were forced onto reserves.
Settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway
was built in the early 1880s, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey
and gave free land to any willing settlers.
The North West Mounted Police
set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan including Fort Walsh
in the Cypress Hills
, and Wood Mountain
Post in south central Saskatchewan near the American border.
In 1876, following the Battle of Little Bighorn
Lakota chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Wood Mountain Reserve was founded in 1914.
people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Saskatchewan Rivers district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Rebellion
in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel
, staged the North-West Rebellion
and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the prairies
by the new Canadian Pacific Railway
. Riel surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina
courtroom. He was hanged on November 16
As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population grew, and Saskatchewan became a province on September 1
; inauguration day was held September 4.
The Homestead Act permitted settlers to acquire ¼mi² of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Immigration peaked in 1910 and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life, distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour, a prosperous agrarian society was established.
In 1913, the http://www.saskatchewanstockgrowers.com/ Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association
was established as Saskatchewan's first agricultural organization. (http://www.saskatchewanstockgrowers.com/images/E0129301/logossgajpg.jpg See Logo Here
) Three objectives were laid out at the founding convention in 1913 have served as a guide: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the Stock Growers in every honorable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements.
Early in the century, the Ku Klux Klan
became a popular and organization in Saskatchewan. The province had the distinction of having the largest per capita membership in the KKK of any political jurisdiction in North America. At one time the Mayor of Regina was a member of the KKK and the local hospital openly refused to treat non-whites.
, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina.
Saskatchewan has the same form of government as the other Canadian provinces with a Lieutenant-Governor
(who is the representative of the Crown
, and a unicameral legislature
For many years, Saskatchewan has been one of Canada's more left-leaning provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation from the interests of large capital. In 1944 Tommy Douglas
became premier of the first avowedly socialist
regional government in North America
. Most of his MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his CCF Cooperative Commonwealth Federation
government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare
, billed at the time as government-funded mandatory universal medical insurance. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party
During most of the postwar period, the CCF and its successor, the Saskatchewan New Democrats
have dominated provincial politics with Douglas, Allan Blakeney
, and Roy Romanow
all serving long periods as premier and becoming national figures. Urbanization since the Second World War has altered the provincial economy away from its agricultural basis, and there has been a steady migration from farms to cities and towns. There was a corresponding shift in the NDP's focus from rural to urban concerns, so that the NDP gradually became the voice of cities and towns.
The Saskatchewan Liberal Party
was the province's main centrist party for several decades early in Saskatchewan's existence, ruling from 1905–29 and from 1934–44. It regained power in 1964, but became insignificant following the defeat of Ross Thatcher
's Liberal government in 1971. The Progressive Conservatives
led by Grant Devine gradually replaced the Liberals as the NDP's main rival and soundly defeated the New Democrats in 1982's "Monday Night Massacre". But the Conservatives' popularity plummeted after running up large deficits and being closely aligned with the Mulroney-led federal PC government in 1991. Many PC MLAs, including some cabinet ministers, were convicted for misappropriation of public funds, and the PC Party itself went into suspension, though it has recently announced its intention to run a full slate in the next provincial election.
Today, the official opposition in the province is the Saskatchewan Party
, a new party built since 1997 out of the remains of the Tories and former Liberals and even one New Democrat frustrated by the NDP's inability to "grow" the economy and population. The current premier of Saskatchewan is New Democrat Lorne Calvert
, whose government was re-elected in the 2003 election
with a slim majority -- the NDP won 30 seats in the 58-seat Legislative Assembly, while the Saskatchewan Party won the remaining 28 seats. Most NDP MLAs represent cities and towns while most SP MLAs represent rural ridings.
Despite the NDP's three long stretches as the provincial government, the province leans more to the right in federal politics. Of the 14 federal constituencies in Saskatchewan, 12 are currently member of the Conservative Party of Canada. While the province has a slim majority NDP provincial government, the federal NDP has been shut out of the province for two consecutive elections. The only Liberal MPs are former Finance Minister Ralph Goodale
and Gary Merasty
, whose election win brought allegations over possible election fraud.
Centennial celebrationsthumb|150px|The Saskatchewan Centennial Coin.
In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it the Royal Canadian Mint
issued a commemorative 5-dollar coin depicting Canada
's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin
of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II
and The Duke of Edinburgh
visited Regina, Saskatoon and Lumsden
and Joni Mitchell
issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.
Population of Saskatchewan since 1901thumb|500px|right|Saskatchewan's population since 1901
|1901 ||91,279 ||n/a ||n/a ||8
|1911 ||492,432 ||n/a ||439.5 ||3
|1921 ||757,510 ||n/a ||53.8 ||3
|1931 ||921,785 ||n/a ||21.7 ||3
|1941 ||895,992 ||n/a ||-2.8 ||3
|1951 ||831,728 ||n/a ||-7.2 ||5
|1956 ||880,665 ||5.9 ||n/a ||5
|1961 ||925,181 ||5.1 ||11.2 ||5
|1966 ||955,344 ||3.3 ||8.5 ||6
|1971 ||926,242 ||-3.0 ||0.1 ||6
|1976 ||921,325 ||-0.5 ||3.6 ||6
|1981 ||968,313 ||5.1 ||4.5 ||6
|1986 ||1,009,613 ||4.3 ||9.6 ||6
|1991 ||988,928 ||-2.0 ||2.1 ||6
|1996 ||976,615 ||-1.2 ||-3.3 ||6
|2001 ||978,933 ||0.2 ||-1.0 ||6
|2006 ||985,386 ||0.7 ||0.9 ||6
|}Source: Statistics Canada.
[http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo62i.htm The history of Saskatchewan's population from Statistics Canada] [http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/060927/d060927a.htm Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.]Ethnic origins [http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo26i.htm Ethnic origins from Statistics Canada]Note: The following statistics include a combination of individual and multiple responses from the 2001 Census, and therefore do not add up to 100%.
* "North American Indian" First Nations
* Dutch (Netherlands)
* Hungarian (Magyar)
* American (USA)
*Saskatchewan sends more players per capita to the NHL
than any other province or state.
*Saskatchewan's licence plates bear the slogan "Land of Living Skies", and depict three stalks of wheat.
*John le Carre
's novel The Constant Gardener
features Saskatchewan prominently in one of its chapters, but has several errors that suggest Le Carre did not actually visit the province.
*With approximately 250 golf courses Saskatchewan has more courses per capita than anywhere else in the world.
*Star of The Naked Gun series Leslie Nielsen
was born February 11, 1926 in Regina Saskatchewan.
grew up in Saskatoon
, Saskatchewan from the age of nine onwards.
*In the film The Hudsucker Proxy
in the scene where Jennifer Jason Leigh
is typing up her newspaper story, Saskatchewan is one of the words on the board the crossword puzzle maker is making his crossword puzzle on.
*In the Proclaimers
' song "Cap in Hand" there is a line that goes "I can tell the difference between margarine and butter, I can say Saskatchewan without starting to stutter."
*In the Louis Malle
film Atlantic City
, Susan Sarandon
's character comes from Saskatchewan.
*In The Muppet Movie
, there is a joke during the song "Moving Right Along": Kermit and Fozzie are supposed to be driving across the US towards Hollywood, but at one point they wind up in Saskatchewan.
*In Arthur Hailey
's novel Hotel
, when a witness describes the out of state license plates of a suspect, Saskatchewan is mentioned as one of the few states/provinces the car could have come from.
*In the song "Coming home" by Dallas Green
, Saskatoon is used in one of the verses.
Arts and culture
Museums and galleries
* Mendel Art Gallery
* Shurniak Art Gallery
* http://www.mackenzieartgallery.sk.ca/ MacKenzie Art Gallery
* http://www.royalsaskmuseum.ca/ Royal Saskatchewan Museum
* RCMP Academy, Depot Division
which includes the RCMP Centennial Museum
* http://www.dlric.org/museum.html Duck Lake Regional Interpretive Center
* AKA Gallery
*The Gallery on Sherbrooke, Wolseley
* Dr William Hobbs
Prairie and Railways Painter.
* Glen Scrimshaw
* Joe Fafard
Law and order
* Estevan Police Service
* Moose Jaw Police Service
* Prince Albert Police Service
* Regina Police Service
* RM of Corman Park Police Service
* Royal Canadian Mounted Police
* Saskatoon Police Service
* Weyburn Police Service
* Saskatoon correctional centre
* Regina Correctional Centre
* Prince Albert Correctional Centre
* Pine Grove Correctional Centre
* Saskatchewan Penitentiary
* Regina Paul Dojack Youth Center
*The Saskatchewan Act
*Monarchy in Saskatchewan
*District of Assiniboia
*List of cities in Canada
*List of airports in Saskatchewan
*List of Saskatchewan general elections
*List of Saskatchewan lieutenant-governors
*List of Saskatchewan premiers
*List of Leaders of the Opposition in Saskatchewan
*List of communities in Saskatchewan
*List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols
*List of Saskatchewan rivers
*Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
*List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan
*Saskatchewan Film and Video Classification Board
*Scouting in Saskatchewan
* Martin, Robin Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940
, University of Toronto Press, 1992
*http://www.ecumenism.net/denom/saskatchewan.htm Directory of Saskatchewan Churches
*http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-73-884/politics_economy/elections_saskatchewan/ CBC Digital Archives - Showdown on the Prairies: A History of Saskatchewan Elections
*http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-1931/life_society/saskatchewan_100/ CBC Digital Archives - Saskatchewan @ 100 af:Saskatchewanar:ساسكاتشوانzh-min-nan:Saskatchewanbs:Saskatchewanca:Saskatchewancs:Saskatchewancy:Saskatchewanda:Saskatchewande:Saskatchewanet:Saskatchewani provintses:Saskatchewaneo:Saskaĉevanofa:ساسکاچوانfr:Saskatchewanko:서스캐처원 주id:Saskatchewanit:Saskatchewanhe:ססקצ'ואןka:სასკაჩევანიkw:Saskatchewanla:Saskatchewanlt:Saskačevanasnl:Saskatchewanja:サスカチュワン州no:Saskatchewanpl:Saskatchewanpt:Saskatchewanro:Saskatchewanru:Саскачеванsimple:Saskatchewansk:Saskatchewanfi:Saskatchewansv:Saskatchewanvi:Saskatchewantr:Saskatchewanuk:Саскачеванzh:沙士吉萬