, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila
, Taxila haquinus
, Heavy Industries Taxila
, Talk:Heavy Industries Taxila
, Image:Taxila Pakistan juillet 2004.JPG
was an important Vedic
[cite book | last = Majumdar, Raychauduri and Datta | authorlink | title = An Advanced History of India | origyear = 1946 | publisher = Macmillan| location = London | pages = ]
centre of learning from the 5th century BCEhttp://whc.unesco.org/en/list/139
to the 2nd century CEhttp://whc.unesco.org/en/list/139
has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites
Taxila is located in the west of the Islamabad Capital Territory
, to the northwest of Rawalpindi
, on the border of the Punjab
and North West Frontier Province
s, about thirty kilometres west-northwest of Islamabad
, just off the Grand Trunk Road
Taxila lay at the meeting point of three major trade routes, the royal highway from Pāṭaliputra
, the northwestern route through Bactria
, Kāpiśa, and Puṣkalāvatī
), and the route from Kashmir
and Central Asia
, via Śrinigar
, and the Haripur
[cite book | last = Thapar | first = Romila | authorlink = Romila Thapar | title = Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas | origyear = 1961 | year = 1997 | publisher = Oxford University Press | location = Oxford | id = ISBN 0195639324 | pages = ]
across the Khunjerab pass
to the Silk Road
Historythumb|150px|A coin from 2nd century BCE Taxila.thumb|150px|Jaulian, a [World Heritage Site
Legend has it that Taksha
an ancient Indian king who ruled in a kingdom called Taksha Khanda (Tashkent) founded the city of Takshashila. The word Takshashila, in Sanskrit
means "belonging to the King Taksha". Taksha was the son of Bharata
(brother of the legendary Rama
) and Mandavi (cousin of Sita
), historical characters who appear in the Indian epic Ramayana
In the Mahābhārata
, the Kuru
was enthroned at Taxila.
[cite book | last = Kosambi | first = Damodar Dharmanand | authorlink = Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi | title = An Introduction to the study of Indian History | origyear = 1956 | edition = Revised Second Edition | year = 1975 | publisher = Popular Prakashan | location = Bombay | pages = ]
Ahmad Hasan Dani and Saifur Rahman Dar trace the etymology of Taxila to a tribe called the Takka.
According to Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, "Taxila" is related to "Takṣaka," which means "carpenter" and is an alternative name for the Nāga
. 518 BCE
[cite book | last = Marshall | first = John | authorlink = John Marshall (archaeologist) | title = Taxila: Volume I | origyear = 1951 | year = 1975 | publisher = Motilal Banarsidass | location = Delhi | pages = ]
– Darius the Great
annexes North-West of India, including Taxila, to the Persian Achaemenid Empire
* 326 BCE
– Alexander the Great
receives submission of Āmbhi
[Named "Taxiles" by Greek sources after his capital city.]
king of Taxila, and afterwards defeats Porus
at the Jhelum River
. 317 BCE – In quick succession, Alexander's general Eudemus
and then the satrap Peithon
withdraw from India.
[Peithon was named by Alexander satrap of Sindh, and was again confirmed to the Gandhara region by the Treaty of Triparadisus in 320 BCE: "The country of the Parapamisians was bestowed upon Oxyartes, the father of Roxane; and the skirts of India adjacent to Mount Parapamisus, on Peithon the son of Agenor. As to the countries beyond that, those on the river Indus, with the city Patala (the capital of that part of India) were assigned to Porus. Those upon the Hydaspes, to Taxiles the Indian." Arrian "Anabasis, the Events after Alexander". He ultimately left in 316 BCE, to become satrap of Babylon in 315 BCE, before dying at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE] Candragupta
, founder of the Mauryan empire
, then makes himself master of the Punjab
. Candragupta Maurya's advisor Kautilya
(also known as Chanakya) was a teacher at Taxila.
*During the reign of Chandragupta's grandson Aśoka
, Taxila became a great Buddhist centre of learning. Nonetheless, Taxila was briefly the center of a minor local rebellion, subdued only a few years after its onset.
* 185 BCE
[cite book | last = Kulke | first = Hermann | coauthors = Rothermund, Dietmar | title = A History of India | origyear = 1986 | edition = Third Edition | year = 1998 | publisher = Routledge | location = London | id = ISBN 0-415-15481-2 | pages = ]
– The last Maurya emperor, Bṛhadratha
, is assassinated by his general, Puṣyamitra Śunga
, during a parade of his troops.
[Kulke and Rothermund 1998:68]
* 183 BCE
[Kulke and Rothermund 1998:70]
conquers Gandhāra, the Punjab and the Indus valley
He builds his new capital, Sirkap
, on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila.
[Kulke and Rothermund 1998:70]
During this new period of Bactrian Greek
rule, several dynasties (like Antialcidas
) likely ruled from the city as their capital. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, managed independently and controlled by several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city's autonomous coinage.
. 90 BCE
– The Indo-Scythian
overthrows the last Greek king of Taxila.
. 25 CE
, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom
, conquers Taxila and makes it his capital.
[Kulke and Rothermund 1998:75]
– The date of and inscription found at Taxila of 'Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, the Kushana
' (maharaja rajatiraja devaputra Kushana
[Kulke and Rothermund 1998:75]
– The Ephthalite
s sweep over Gandhāra and the Punjab; wholesale destruction of Buddhist monasteries and stūpas at Taxila, which never again recovers.
Before the fall of these ancient invader-kings in India, Taxila had been variously a regional and national capital for many dynasties, and a true center of learning for Vedic learning, Buddhists,Classical Hindus, and a possible population of Greeks that may have endured for centuries.
[The Life of Apollonius Tyana demonstrates that the rulers of Taxila spoke Greek several centuries after Greek political dominance had faded.]
The British archaeologist Sir John Marshall
excavations over a period of twenty years in Taxila.
[cite book | last = Marshall | first = Sir John | authorlink = John Marshall (archaeologist) | title = A Guide to Taxila | year = 1960 | publisher = Department of Archaeology in Pakistan, Sani Communications | location = ]
"TEHSIL COUNCIL TAXILA"
Khan Muhammad Sadeeq Khan is Nazim of Tehsil Council Taxila.
Ancient centre of learning
unreferenced|date=August thumb|300px|Archaeological artifacts from the Indo-Greek strata at Taxila ([[John Marshall (archaeologist)|John Marshall
"Taxila, Archeological excavations"). From top, left:
* Fluted cup (Bhir Mound, stratum 1)
* Cup with rosace and decoratice scroll (Bhir Mound, stratum 1)
* Stone palette
with individual on a couch being crowned by standing woman, and served (Sirkap
, stratum 5)
* Handle with double depiction of a philosopher (Sirkap, stratum 5)
* Woman with smile (Sirkap, stratum 5)
* Man with moustache (Sirkap, stratum 5)]]
Some scholars date Takshashila's existence as far back as the 7th century BCE.
[Hartmut Scharfe(2002). Education in Ancient India. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004125566.]
During the early Hindu period Taxila emerged as a great centre of learning for people from all over the sub-continent. Takshashila University
is considered to be the world's earliest university, which was built in late Vedic
[ There are also several Jātaka stories about the students and teachers of Takshashila University.] [Marshall 1975:81]
Taxila is significant in Buddhist tradition because it is that the Mahāyāna sect of Buddhism was founded there. The Sanskrit grammarian Pānini, the political theorist Kautilyahttp://answers.com/topic/chanakyahttp://britannica.com/eb/article-9044882 and the Ayurvedic healer Charaka studied at Taxila at various points in time. Kautilya, who later became adviser to the founder of the Mauryan empire, is said to have composed his treatise on statecraft the Arthaśāstra in Taxila.verify
Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of The four Vedas (Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Atharva-Veda) and the Eighteen Arts were taught, in addition to law, medicine and warfare.verify Skills such as archery, hunting and elephant-lore were also taught.verify
* Ancient Universities of India
* http://www.livius.org/ta-td/taxila/taxila.htm "Taxila", by Jona Lendering
* http://bruning.xs4all.nl/~umayr/taxila/ Some photos by Umayr Sahlan Masud
* http://www.punjab-info.fsnet.co.uk/taxila.html Taxila page from http://www.punjab-info.fsnet.co.uk/index.htm punjab-info
* http://mcduddl.com.ne.kr/PKST/PK-IM-TXL.htm Travel With Young - Taxila 한글
*http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/maps/gandh.html Map of Gandhara archeological sites, from the Huntington Collection, Ohio State University (large file)
World Heritage Sites in
Category:Cities and towns in Punjab (Pakistan)
Category:Archaeological sites in Pakistan
Category:World Heritage Sites in Pakistan
Category:Ancient Greeks in Asia
Category:Cities along the Silk Road
Category:Ancient Greek sites in Pakistan