Vinegar, Talk:Vinegar/Vinegar drunkness
, Mother of vinegar
, Rice vinegar
, Vinegar Joe
, Balsamic vinegar
, Bible errata
, Vinegar Tom
is a liquid produced by the fermentation of alcohol into acetic acid
and other fermentation by-products. The acetic acid concentration ranges typically from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar
[http://www.fda.gov/ora/compliance_ref/cpg/cpgfod/cpg525-825.html FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions - Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)]
(typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%) although in some countries the minimum strength may be less. Natural vinegars also contain smaller amounts of tartaric acid
, citric acid
, and other acids. It has been used since ancient times, and is an important element in Western
, and other traditional cuisines of the world.
of vinegar is typically in the range 2- 3.5 while commercially available vinegar is usually about 2.4 but the pH level will vary depending on the concentration of acetic acid.
The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French vin aigre
, meaning "sour wine." Louis Pasteur
showed in 1864
that vinegar results from a natural fermentation
Vinegar is made from the oxidation
, fermented fruit juice
, or nearly any other liquid containing alcohol.
Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation
processes. Slow methods are generally used with traditional vinegars and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria
and soluble cellulose
, known as the mother of vinegar
. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e bacterial culture) to the source liquid and then add air using a venturi pump
system or a turbine
to promote oxygenisation to give the fastest fermentation.
In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging between 20 hours and three days.Vinegar eels
), a form of nematode
, may occur in some forms of vinegar. These feed on the mother and occur in naturally fermenting vinegar
[http://www.fda.gov/ora/compliance_ref/cpg/cpgfod/cpg525-825.html FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions - Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)]
]. Most manufacturers filter
their product before bottling to prevent these organisms from forming.
Types of vinegar
So-called "white vinegar" (actually transparent in appearance) can be made by oxidizing a distilled alcohol
. Alternatively, it may be nothing more than a solution of acetic acid
in water. Most commercial white vinegars are 5% acetic acid solutions. They are made from grain
) and water. White vinegar is used for culinary as well as cleaning purposes.
Malt vinegar is made by malt
, causing the starch
in the grain to turn to maltose
. An ale
is then brewed
from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light brown in color.
A cheaper alternative, called "non-brewed condiment," is a solution of 4-8% acetic acid colored
. There is also around 1-3% citric acid present. Non-brewed condiment is more popular in the North of England, and gained popularity with the rise of the Temperance Societies. The non-alcoholic nature of non-brewed condiment therefore makes it popular for individuals whose cultural or religious beliefs forbid them from drinking alcohol.
vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Mediterranean
countries and Germany
. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. There are more expensive wine vinegars made from individual varieties of wine, such as Champagne
, or pinot grigio
Apple ciderthumb|left|135px|Shaw's brand apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar, sometimes known simply as cider vinegar, is made from cider
or apple must
, and is often sold unfiltered, with a brownish-yellow color; it often contains mother of vinegar
. It is currently very popular, partly due to its alleged beneficial health and beauty properties (see below).
Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wine
s without any additional flavouring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include black currant, raspberry
, and tomato
. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain tasteable in the final vinegar.
Most such vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars which are infused with fruits or fruit flavors. Persimmon
vinegar is popular in South Korea
, and jujube
vinegar is produced in China.http://www.tianjiaohong.com.cn/ecpjs/ZAOCU.HTM Umeboshi
vinegar, a salty, sour liquid that is a by-product of umeboshi
) production, is produced in Japan but is technically not a true vinegar.
is an aromatic, aged type of vinegar traditionally manufactured in Modena
, from the concentrated juice, or must
, of white grapes (typically of the Trebbiano
variety). It is very dark brown in color and its flavor is rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being the end product of years of aging in a successive number of casks made of various types of wood (including oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, ash, and acacia). Originally an artisanal product available only to the Italian upper classes, balsamic vinegar became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century. True balsamic is aged between 3 - 12 years and even older and is expensive. The commercial balsamic sold in supermarkets is typically made with red wine vinegar or concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar which is laced with caramel and sugar. However produced, balsamic needs to be made from a grape product.
Balsamic has a high acid level, but the sweetness covers the tart flavor, making it very mellow.
is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in white (actually light yellow), red, and black variants. The Japan
ese prefer a light and more delicate rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi
rice. Red rice vinegar is traditionally colored with red yeast rice
, although some Chinese brands use artificial food coloring
Black rice vinegar is most popular in China
, although it is also produced in Japan (see East Asian black
It may be used as a substitute for balsamic vinegar, although its dark color and the fact that it is aged may be the only similarity between the two products.
Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings!
Coconut vinegar, made from the sap, or "toddy
," of the coconut palm
, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines, a major producer of the product), as well as in some cuisines of India. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.
Cane vinegar, made from sugar cane
juice, is most popular in the Ilocos Region
of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukang iloko
), although it is also produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Contrary to expectation, it is not sweeter than other vinegars, containing no residual sugar.
Vinegar made from raisin
s is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced in Turkey. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/bni/24000855http://www.vintagefood.com/webshop/product.php?productid=24855
Vinegar made from dates
is a traditional product of the Middle East.http://mahramco.com/products.aspx?id=116
Vinegar made from beer
is produced in Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Although its flavor depends on the particular type of beer from which it is made, it is often described as having a malty taste. That produced in Bavaria
is a light golden color, with a very sharp and not overly complex flavor.http://www.germandeli.com/burbavbeervi.html
Vinegar made from honey
is rare, though commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italy
East Asian black
Chinese black vinegar
is an aged product made from rice
, or sorghum
, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor.http://www.patchun.com.hk/english/products_aged_sorghum.html
There is no fixed recipe and thus some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Chinkiang vinegar, originated in the city of Zhenjiang
, in the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu
, and is also produced in Tianjin
and Hong Kong
A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is also produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu
. Since 2004 it has been marketed as a healthful drink; its manufacturers claim that it contains high concentrations of amino acid
Popular fruit-flavored vinegars
include those infused with whole raspberries
, or fig
s (or else from flavorings derived from these fruits). Some of the more exotic fruit-flavored vinegars include blood orange
. Herb vinegars
are flavored with herb
s, most commonly Mediterranean
herbs such as thyme
. Such vinegars can be prepared at home by adding sprigs of fresh or dried herbs to store-bought vinegar; generally a light-colored, mild tasting vinegar such as that made from white wine is used for this purpose.Sweetened vinegar
is of Cantonese
origin and is made from rice wine, sugar and herbs including ginger, cloves and other spices.
Vinegar is commonly used in food
preparation, particularly in pickling
s, and other salad dressings
. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard
, and mayonnaise
. Vinegar is an essential component of chutney
s. It is often used as a condiment
s often contain vinegar.
*Condiment for fish and chips
s commonly use malt vinegar
(or non-brewed condiment) on chips
; it may be used in other territories where British
-style fish and chips are served. In the case of American-style (potato
) chips, many manufacturers of pre-packaged potato chips, including the Lay's
brands, feature a variety flavored with vinegar and an excess of salt.
*Vinegar pie - is a North American dessert
made with a vinegar to one's taste
[http://www.cooks.com/rec/search/0,1-0,vinegar_pie,FF.html Vinegar Pie]
*Pickling with cider vinegar - cider vinegar
can be used to pickle
foods, but will darken light fruits and vegetables.
*Cider vinegar and sauces - cider vinegar
is not usually suitable for use in delicate sauces.
*Substitute for lemon juice - cider vinegar
can usually be substituted for lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect.
*Saucing roast lamb - pouring cider vinegar
over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a tasty sauce.
*Sweetened vinegar (see
Flavored vinegars above) is used in the dish of Pork Knuckles and Ginger Stew which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child.
[http://www.patchun.com.hk/ie/new_baby.htm New babies]
rice - Japanese use rice vinegar
as an essential ingredient for sushi rice.
Many remedies and treatments have been ascribed to vinegar over the millenia and in many different cultures but few have been verifiable using controlled medical trials and several that are effective to some extent have significant risks and side effects. In most cases, alternative treatments are more effective and less risky. Nevertheless, there is verifiable evidence that vinegar is effective for certain conditions.
Blood glucose control and diabetic management
Small amounts of vinegar (approx. 20 mls or two tablespoons of domestic vinegar) added to food, or taken along with a meal, have been shown by a number of medical trials to reduce the glycemic index
of carbohydrate food in both healthy and diabetic recipients.
[Liljeberg H, Bjorck I. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;64:886-893] [Leeman M, Ostman E, Bjorck I. Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1266-1271] [http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2475 Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:281-282]
This has been also been expressed as lower glycemic index ratings for food thus treated of involving a reduced GI in the region of 30%.
[Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:743-752] [Ostman EM, Liljeberg Elmstahl HG, Bjorck IM. Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:96-100]
Multiple trials indicate that taking vinegar with food increases satiety (the feeling of fullness) and so reduces the amount of food consumed.
[Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Bjorck I. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59,983-988] [High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection?Roberts SB. High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity Is there a connection? Nutr Rev. 2000;58:163-169]
Even a single application of vinegar can lead to reduced food intake for a whole day.
[http://www.ffnmag.com/NH/ASP/strArticleID/1037/strSite/FFNSite/articleDisplay.asp Carb and weight control through acetic acid?]
Treatment for jellyfish stings
Applying vinegar to jellyfish
stings deactivates the nematocyst
s. However, placing the affected areas into hot-water is a more effective treatment because the venom is deactivated by
Traditional and anecdotal treatments
prescribed vinegar for many ailments, from skin rash
to ear infection
*Vinegar is a folk medicine
used in China
to prevent the spread of virus
such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
) and other pneumonia
*On February 13
news of a type of atypical pneumonia that appeared in six cities of south China's Guangdong
province has been brought under control, with no cases reported since Monday. According to press conferences held by the Guangdong and Guangzhou
governments, local governments at various levels have taken emergency measures to control the prices of isatis
root, vinegar and other related anti-virus medicine
s, which saw soaring prices due to their effectiveness in curing this
*The therapeutic use of vinegar is recorded in the second verse of the nursery rhyme “Jack and Jill
”: “Went to bed and bound his head / With vinegar and brown paper.” As with some nursery rhymes, there is truth in the story. The vinegar used would likely have been cider vinegar.
*Apple cider vinegar is a much more useful astringent
than ice and will reduce inflammation, bruising and swelling in approximately a third of the time that ice will take. Application is directly onto the skin with a flannel, and left on for an hour or
*Apple cider vinegar can also be used to prevent some problems in the digestive systems of dogs, such as E. Coli. The vinegar is acidic until it enters the dog's body, and it lines their intestines. E. coli cannot attach to an alkaline vinegar-coated intestine.
*Apple cider vinegar in particular is often touted as a medical aid, from cancer prevention to alleviation of joint pain to weight loss.
[http://www.lacetoleather.com/wonderdrug.html The Wonder Drug of Yesterday and Today] [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GCU/is_n6_v14/ai_20152545 The sour truth about apple cider vinegar - evaluation of therapeutic use] [[http://www.mypharmacy.co.uk/health_books/books/c/cider_vinegar.htm Cider Vinegar]
by Margaret Hills SRN]
[[http://www.herbalhealer.com/weightloss.html APPLE CIDER]
These claims began in Biblical times; in 1958
, Dr. D. C. Jarvis made the remedy popular with a book that sold 500,000 copies.
*Claims that cider vinegar can be used as a beauty aid also persist,
[http://www.care2.com/channels/solutions/self/267 Beautiful Skin Tip: Apple Cider Vinegar]
despite the fact that apple cider vinegar can sometimes be very dangerous to the eyes. The acid will burn and the eyes will become red, but no damage to the eyes has ever been described. If the vinegar contains mother of vinegar the slime bacteria of the mother can cause
*Many believe that vinegar is also a cure to mild to moderate sunburn when soaked on the area with a towel or in a
*Cider vinegar is also claimed to be a solution to dandruff
, in that the acid in the vinegar kills the fungus Malassezia furfur
(formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale
) and restores the chemical balance of the
According to Cyril Scott:
Defective metabolism is more often than not the root of ailment and
disease. Apple Cider Vinegar has been shown to improve metabolism and blood oxidation, and restore health. As a natural food, it's a safe and inexpensive way to maintain the organism's biochemical balance and minimize health risks.
Among the ailments and diseases that Apple Cider vinegar can help treat are: obesity, dental decay, insomnia, memory loss, indigestion, diarrhea, food poisoning increases calcium deposit in the bones, as inhalant cleans stuffy noses, as mouthwash and gargle treats sore throats, tickling cough, eases asthma, strengthens hair and nails.
1-2 teaspoonfuls of apple cider vinegar in 1/2 to 1 full glass
of preferably distilled water. It can be taken up to 3 times a day
and should be sipped instead of gulped down.
These notes are from Cyril Scott's booklet "Cider Vinegar: nature's Great Health-Promoter and Safest treatment of Obesity" (London: Athene, 1968)
Vinegar along with hydrogen peroxide
) is used in the livestock
industry to kill bacteria
and viruses before refrigeration storage. A chemical mixture of peracetic acid
is formed when acetic acid
is mixed with hydrogen peroxide. It is being used in some Asian
countries by aerosol spray
s for control of pneumonia
. A mixture of five-percent acetic acid and three-percent hydrogen peroxide is commonly
As a herbicide===
Vinegar can be used as a herbicide
as shown by scientific trials reported by the US Dept of Agriculture in 2002
[http://ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2002/020515.htm Spray Weeds With Vinegar?]
. Vinegar made from natural products classifies as organic
and so there is interest in it being used on farms/orchards/gardens certified as organic. The trials showed that a number of common weeds could be effectively controlled using vinegar with 5% to 20% acetic acid
. The lower concentration is less effective. A crop of corn
can be sprayed with vinegar at 20% strength without causing harm to that crop and so it can be used to help keep a corn crop clear of weeds.
Acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems and so vinegar will kill top growth but perennial
s will reshoot
[http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/CES/yard/2004/041004.html Vinegar as herbicide]
Commercial vinegar available to consumers for household use does not exceed 5% and solutions above 10% need careful handling since they are corrosive and damaging to skin. Stronger solutions (i.e. greater than 5%) that are labeled for use as herbicides are available from some retailers
[http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/vinegar.html Conquer Weeds with Vinegar?]
*Some countries, like Canada
, prohibit the selling of vinegar over a certain percentage acidity.
*When a bottle of vinegar is opened, mother of vinegar
may develop. It is considered harmless and can be removed by filtering.
*When vinegar is added to sodium bicarbonate
(baking soda), it produces a very fizzy and volatile mixture of carbonic acid
decomposing into carbon dioxide and water. It is exemplified as the typical acid-base reaction in school science experiments. The salt that is formed is sodium acetate
, a strong base
*According to the Prophet Mu220.127.116.11
21:16, 25 November 2006 (UTC)hammed, vinegar is one of the best condiments (Ref. Sahih Muslim Book 023, Number 5091).
would consume vast quantities of white vinegar in an attempt to keep his complexion pale.
[http://www.druglibrary.org/SCHAFFER/MISC/mariju1.htm Schaffer Library of Drug Policy]
also believe that vinegar can be used as a detoxification
agent for marijuana
but this is myth
[http://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/testing/testing_info9.shtml Fooling the Bladder Cops] [http://www.newdirectionsprogram.com/drugtesting.html Drug Testing Your Child] [http://www.faqfarm.com/Q/Can_you_get_marijuana_out_of_your_system_with_vinegar Can you get marijuana out of your system with vinegar?]
*http://www.drinkingvinegar.com/ 3000 year old Drinking Vinegar
*http://www.versatilevinegar.org/ The Vinegar Institute
- Promotional website from members of the vinegar industry
*http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC32883 Acetic Acid
*http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/531649 Vinegar: Medicinal Uses and Antiglycemic Effect
- Medscape.com article by Carol S. Johnston, PhD, RD and Cindy A. Gaas, BS.
*http://www.vinegarman.com/ Vinegar Connoisseurs International
*http://www.vinegar.org/ Information about production and uses
*http://weirdfacts.com/fun-facts/50-uses-for-vinegar.html Weird Facts - 50 Uses for VinegarCategory:Fermented foodsCategory:Condimentsar:خلbg:Оцетca:Vinagreda:Eddikede:Essiges:Vinagreeo:Vinagrofa:سرکهfr:Vinaigreit:Acetohe:חומץnl:Azijnnds-nl:Edikja:酢no:Eddikug:سىركەpl:Ocetpt:Vinagreru:Уксусscn:Acitusimple:Vinegarsl:Kisfi:Etikkasv:Vinägertr:Sirkeuk:Оцетzh:醋